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Ritonavir: Drug information

Ritonavir: Drug information
(For additional information see "Ritonavir: Patient drug information" and see "Ritonavir: Pediatric drug information")

For abbreviations, symbols, and age group definitions used in Lexicomp (show table)
ALERT: US Boxed Warning
Drug-drug interactions leading to potentially serious and/or life threatening reactions:

Coadministration of ritonavir with several classes of drugs, including sedative hypnotics, antiarrhythmics, or ergot alkaloid preparations, may result in potentially serious and/or life-threatening adverse reactions due to possible effects of ritonavir on the hepatic metabolism of certain drugs. Review medications taken by patients prior to prescribing ritonavir or when prescribing other medications to patients already taking ritonavir.

Brand Names: US
  • Norvir
Brand Names: Canada
  • Norvir
Pharmacologic Category
  • Antiretroviral, Protease Inhibitor (Anti-HIV)
Dosing: Adult

Note: Norvir capsules have been discontinued in the United States for more than 1 year.

Note: Must be given in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Norvir tablets are not bioequivalent to Norvir capsules. Patients who take ritonavir capsules may experience more GI adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea when switching from the capsule to the tablet because of the greater maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) achieved with the tablet compared with the capsule.

HIV-1 infection, as a pharmacokinetic enhancer in combination with other protease inhibitors

HIV-1 infection, as a pharmacokinetic enhancer in combination with other protease inhibitors (off-label use):

HIV-1 treatment regimens: Oral: 100 to 400 mg daily in 1 to 2 divided doses (HHS [adult] 2019). Refer to individual protease inhibitor monographs; specific dosage recommendations often require adjustment of both agents.

HIV-1 nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP): Oral: 100 mg once daily for 28 days (in combination with other antiretroviral agents). Initiate therapy within 72 hours of exposure (HHS [nPEP] 2016).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Adult

No dosage adjustment necessary (HHS [adult] 2019).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

Mild to moderate impairment (Child-Pugh class A or B): No dosage adjustment necessary; however, ritonavir levels may be decreased in moderate impairment and patient response should be monitored.

Severe impairment (Child-Pugh class C): Not recommended (has not been studied).

Dosing: Pediatric

(For additional information see "Ritonavir: Pediatric drug information")

Note: Norvir capsules have been discontinued in the US for >1 year.

Note: Norvir tablets are not bioequivalent to Norvir capsules. Patients who take ritonavir capsules may experience more GI adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or diarrhea when switching from the capsule to the tablet because of the greater maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) achieved with the tablet compared with the capsule.

HIV-1 infection, treatment: Note: Use in combination with other antiretroviral agents: Oral:

Ritonavir as sole protease inhibitor: Note: Not recommended as the sole protease inhibitor in any regimen (HHS [pediatric] 2016)

Infants >1 month (PMA ≥44 weeks) and Children:

Initial: 250 mg/m2/dose every 12 hours; titrate upward at 2- to 3-day intervals by 50 mg/m2/dose twice daily increments to 350 to 400 mg/m2/dose twice daily; maximum dose: 600 mg/dose; Note: Patients who do not tolerate 400 mg/m2 twice daily (due to adverse effects) may be treated with the highest tolerated dose; however, an alternative antiretroviral agent should be considered.

Serum concentrations comparable to those seen in adults receiving standard doses were obtained in children >2 years of age who received 350 to 400 mg/m2 twice daily. In younger patients (1 month to 2 years of age) who received 350 or 450 mg/m2/dose twice daily, ritonavir AUCs were 16% lower and trough concentrations were 60% lower than those observed in adults receiving standard doses; higher ritonavir AUCs were not observed with the 450 mg/m2/dose twice daily compared to the 350 mg/m2/dose twice daily dosing.

Adolescents: Note: Ritonavir as sole protease inhibitor is no longer commonly used in clinical practice and is not recommended in any initial antiretroviral regimen (HHS [adults] 2015): 600 mg twice daily; may use a dose titration schedule to reduce adverse events (nausea/vomiting) by initiating therapy at 300 mg twice daily; increase dose at 2- to 3-day intervals by 100 mg twice daily increments up to a maximum dose of 600 mg twice daily

Ritonavir as pharmacokinetic enhancer ("booster doses" of ritonavir): Note: Ritonavir is used at lower doses to increase the serum concentrations of other protease inhibitors; the recommended dose of ritonavir varies when used with different protease inhibitors; see monographs for individual protease inhibitors for recommended doses; appropriate pediatric "booster doses" of ritonavir have not been established for use with every protease inhibitor or for all pediatric age groups.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Pediatric

No adjustment recommended; renal clearance is negligible (HHS [adult] 2015)

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

Infants, Children, and Adolescents:

Mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A or B): No adjustment recommended; lower ritonavir serum concentrations have been reported in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (use with caution; monitor closely for adequate response)

Severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C): Use not recommended; pharmacokinetics of ritonavir has not been studied in these patients

Dosing: Older Adult

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Capsule, Oral:

Norvir: 100 mg [DSC] [contains alcohol, usp]

Packet, Oral:

Norvir: 100 mg (30 ea)

Solution, Oral:

Norvir: 80 mg/mL (240 mL) [contains alcohol, usp, fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), propylene glycol, saccharin sodium; peppermint-caramel flavor]

Tablet, Oral:

Norvir: 100 mg

Generic: 100 mg

Generic Equivalent Available: US

May be product dependent

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Solution, Oral:

Norvir: 80 mg/mL ([DSC]) [contains alcohol, usp, fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), propylene glycol, saccharin sodium]

Tablet, Oral:

Norvir: 100 mg

Product Availability

Norvir capsules have been discontinued in the United States for more than 1 year.

Administration: Adult

Oral: Administer all formulations with food, per the manufacturer. DHHS guidelines recommend administering the tablets with food and administering capsules or oral solution with food, if possible, to improve tolerability (HHS [adult] 2019).

Oral powder: Pour and mix the entire contents of required number of packets over soft food (eg, apple sauce, vanilla pudding) or liquid (eg, water, chocolate milk, infant formula); use within 2 hours. Administration with food may lessen bitter aftertaste. May be administered via a feeding tube when mixed with water.

Solution: Consider mixing oral solution with chocolate milk or a liquid nutritional supplement and taking within 60 minutes to improve taste. Shake solution well before use. Contains ethanol and propylene glycol; not recommended for use with polyurethane feeding tubes (potential incompatibility) but may be used with silicone and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) feeding tubes.

Tablet: Swallow whole; do not chew, break, or crush.

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: Administer with meals to improve tolerability. Swallow tablets whole; do not chew, break, or crush. Consider reserving liquid formulation for use in patients receiving tube feeding due to its bad taste. Shake liquid well before use. May mix liquid formulation with milk, chocolate milk, vanilla or chocolate pudding or ice cream, or a liquid nutritional supplement. Other techniques used to increase tolerance in children include dulling the taste buds by chewing ice, giving popsicles or spoonfuls of partially frozen orange or grape juice concentrates before administration of ritonavir; coating the mouth with peanut butter to eat before the dose; administration of strong-tasting foods such as maple syrup, cheese, or strong-flavored chewing gum immediately after a dose. Oral solution is highly concentrated; use a calibrated oral dosing syringe to measure and administer. Separate administration of ritonavir and didanosine by 2 hours (HHS [pediatric] 2016).

Use: Labeled Indications

See "Use: Off-Label: Adult."

Use: Off-Label: Adult

HIV-1 infection, as a pharmacokinetic enhancer for other protease inhibitors

Medication Safety Issues
Sound-alike/look-alike issues:

Ritonavir may be confused with Retrovir

Norvir may be confused with Norvasc

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified. Incidences as reported for combined experiences in both treatment-naive and experienced adults unless otherwise noted.

>10%:

Cardiovascular: Flushing (≤13%)

Dermatologic: Pruritus (12%), skin rash (27%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypercholesterolemia (3%; >240 mg/dL: 37% to 45%), increased gamma-glutamyl transferase (5% to 20%), increased serum triglycerides (9%; >800 mg/dL: 17% to 34%; >1500 mg/dL: 1% to 13%)

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain (26%), diarrhea (68%, including severe diarrhea), dysgeusia (16%), dyspepsia (12%), nausea (57%), vomiting (32%)

Nervous system: Dizziness (16%), fatigue (46%; including asthenia), feeling hot (≤13%), paresthesia (51%; including oral paresthesia)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthralgia (≤19%), back pain (≤19%), increased creatine phosphokinase in blood specimen (≤12%)

Respiratory: Cough (22%), oropharyngeal pain (16%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Cold extremity (1%), edema (≤6%), hypertension (3%), hypotension (2%; including orthostatic hypotension), peripheral edema (≤6%), syncope (3%)

Dermatologic: Acne vulgaris (4%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Gout (1%), lipodystrophy (acquired: 3%)

Gastrointestinal: Flatulence (8%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (1%), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2%), increased serum amylase (grades 3/4; infants, children, and adolescents: 7%)

Genitourinary: Urinary frequency (4%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia (grades 3/4; infants, children, and adolescents: 4%), neutropenia (grades 3/4; infants, children, and adolescents: 9%), thrombocytopenia (grades 3/4; infants, children, and adolescents: 5%)

Hepatic: Hepatitis (9%), increased serum alanine aminotransferase (8% to 9%), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (10%; infants, children, and adolescents: grade 3/4: 3%), increased serum bilirubin (1%)

Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reaction (8%)

Nervous system: Confusion (3%), disturbance in attention (3%), peripheral neuropathy (10%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Myalgia (9%), myopathy (≤4%)

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (6%)

Frequency not defined:

Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis

Hepatic: Jaundice

Postmarketing:

Cardiovascular: Atrioventricular block (first, second, or third degree), prolongation P-R interval on ECG, right bundle branch block

Dermatologic: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis

Endocrine & metabolic: Dehydration

Hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis, angioedema

Immunologic: Immune reconstitution syndrome

Nervous system: Seizure

Renal: Nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis) to ritonavir or any component of the formulation; coadministration with drugs that are highly dependent on CYP3A for clearance and for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious and/or life-threatening reactions or with potent CYP3A inducers where significantly reduced ritonavir plasma concentrations may be associated with the potential for loss of virologic response and possible resistance and cross-resistance (eg, alfuzosin, amiodarone, apalutamide, cisapride, colchicine [patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment], dronedarone, ergot derivatives [eg, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methylergonovine], flecainide, lomitapide, lovastatin, lurasidone, midazolam [oral], pimozide, propafenone, quinidine, ranolazine, sildenafil [when used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension; eg, Revatio], simvastatin, St John's wort, triazolam, voriconazole [when ritonavir dose is ≥800 mg/day]).

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Concurrent use with astemizole, bepridil, fusidic acid, neratinib, rivaroxaban, salmeterol, terfenadine, vardenafil, venetoclax (during dose initiation and the ramp-up phase), or voriconazole (regardless of ritonavir dose).

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Protease inhibitors have been associated with a variety of hypersensitivity events (some severe), including rash, anaphylaxis (rare), angioedema, bronchospasm, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome (rare). It is generally recommended to discontinue treatment if severe rash or moderate symptoms accompanied by other systemic symptoms occur.

• Fat redistribution: May cause redistribution/accumulation of fat (eg, central obesity, buffalo hump, peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, cushingoid appearance).

• Hepatotoxicity: May cause hepatitis, jaundice, and/or exacerbation of preexisting hepatic dysfunction (including fatalities); use with caution in patients with underlying hepatic disease, such as hepatitis B or C, cirrhosis, or those with high baseline transaminases; consider increased monitoring of transaminases in these patients.

• Immune reconstitution syndrome: Patients may develop immune reconstitution syndrome resulting in the occurrence of an inflammatory response to an indolent or residual opportunistic infection during initial HIV treatment or activation of autoimmune disorders (eg, Graves’ disease, polymyositis, Guillain-Barré syndrome) later in therapy; further evaluation and treatment may be required.

• Increased cholesterol: Increases in total cholesterol and triglycerides have been reported; screening should be done prior to therapy and periodically throughout treatment.

• PR interval prolongation: Ritonavir has been associated with AV block (including second- and third-degree block) due to prolongation of PR interval; use caution with drugs that prolong the PR interval.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, preexisting conduction abnormalities, or structural heart disease; may be at increased risk of conduction abnormalities (eg, second- or third-degree AV block).

• Diabetes: Hyperglycemia, exacerbation of diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, and new-onset diabetes mellitus have been reported in patients receiving protease inhibitors. Consider monitoring for these conditions. In some patients who discontinued protease inhibitors, hyperglycemia persisted.

• Hemophilia A or B: Use with caution in patients with hemophilia A or B; increased bleeding events, including spontaneous skin hematoma and hemarthrosis, during protease inhibitor therapy have been reported. Additional factor VIII may be needed.

• Hepatic impairment: Use is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C).

• Pancreatitis: Use with caution in patients with increased triglycerides; pancreatitis has been observed (including fatalities). Monitor serum lipase and amylase, and for symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain. Temporary or permanent discontinuation may be clinically indicated.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: [US Boxed Warning]: Coadministration of ritonavir with several classes of drugs, including antiarrhythmics, ergot alkaloids, and sedatives/hypnotics, may result in potentially serious and/or life-threatening adverse reactions due to possible effects of ritonavir on the hepatic metabolism of certain drugs. Review medications taken by patients prior to prescribing ritonavir or when prescribing other medications to patients already taking ritonavir.

Special populations:

• Preterm neonates: Oral solution contains ethanol and propylene glycol; ethanol competitively inhibits propylene glycol metabolism; preterm infants may be at increased risk of toxicity due to decreased ability to metabolize propylene glycol. Postmarketing adverse reactions (cardiac toxicity, lactic acidosis, renal failure, CNS depression, respiratory complications, acute renal failure including fatalities) have been reported in preterm neonates receiving ritonavir-containing solutions. Do not use in neonates with a postmenstrual age (first day of mother's last menstrual period to birth plus elapsed time after birth) <44 weeks, unless benefit outweighs risk and neonate is closely monitored (serum creatinine and osmolality, CNS depression, renal toxicity, lactic acidosis, cardiac conduction abnormalities, hemolysis).

Dosage form specific issues:

• Bioequivalence: Norvir tablets are not bioequivalent to Norvir capsules. Gastrointestinal side effects (eg, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea) or paresthesias may be more common when patients are switching from the capsule to the tablet formulation due to a higher Cmax (26% increase) observed with the tablet formulation compared to the capsule. These side effects may decrease as therapy is continued.

• Oral solution: The oral solution contains large amounts of ethanol (43.2%) and propylene glycol (26.57%). Healthcare providers should pay special attention to accurate calculation, measurement, and administration of dose. Overdose (or cumulative ethanol or propylene glycol content in medications) in a child may lead to lethal ethanol or propylene glycol toxicity.

Warnings: Additional Pediatric Considerations

Ritonavir oral solution contains 43% ethanol (v/v) and 26.6% propylene glycol (w/v); accidental ingestion could result in alcohol-related toxicity. Ethanol competitively inhibits propylene glycol metabolism, which may lead to propylene glycol toxicity in neonates due to impaired elimination. Preterm neonates may be at increased risk of adverse events from propylene glycol toxicity, including cardiotoxicity (complete AV block, bradycardia, cardiomyopathy), lactic acidosis, CNS depression, respiratory complications, acute renal failure, and death. Do not use oral solution in neonates with a PMA <44 weeks, unless benefit outweighs risk and neonate is closely monitored for increases in serum osmolality, serum creatinine, and other signs of propylene glycol toxicity (eg, CNS depression, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hemolysis); in neonates particularly, symptoms should be distinguished from sepsis. Toxicities have been reported with the use of products containing propylene glycol in all ages, including hyperosmolality, lactic acidosis, seizures, and respiratory depression. Due to concentration of ethanol in oral solution, an overdose in a child may cause potentially lethal alcohol toxicity. Treatment for overdose should be supportive and include general poisoning management; activated charcoal may help remove unabsorbed medication; dialysis unlikely to be of benefit; however, dialysis can remove alcohol and propylene glycol. In pediatric patients <6 months of age, the total amounts of ethanol and propylene glycol delivered from all medications should be considered to avoid toxicity.

Metabolism/Transport Effects

Substrate of CYP1A2 (minor), CYP2B6 (minor), CYP2D6 (minor), CYP3A4 (major), P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 (minor); Note: Assignment of Major/Minor substrate status based on clinically relevant drug interaction potential; Inhibits CYP2D6 (weak), CYP3A4 (strong), MRP2, P-glycoprotein/ABCB1; Induces CYP1A2 (weak), CYP2B6 (moderate), CYP2C19 (weak), CYP2C9 (weak), UGT1A1

Drug Interactions

Note: Interacting drugs may not be individually listed below if they are part of a group interaction (eg, individual drugs within “CYP3A4 Inducers [Strong]” are NOT listed). For a complete list of drug interactions by individual drug name and detailed management recommendations, use the Lexicomp drug interactions program by clicking on the “Launch drug interactions program” link above.

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Management: In patients taking abemaciclib at a dose of 200 mg or 150 mg twice daily, reduce the dose to 100 mg twice daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. In patients taking abemaciclib 100 mg twice daily, decrease the dose to 50 mg twice daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Specifically, strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase concentrations of the cytotoxic DM1 component. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ado-trastuzumab emtansine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. Consider alternatives that do not inhibit CYP3A4 or consider administering after CYP3A4 inhibitor discontinuation. Monitor for toxicities if combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Afatinib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Afatinib. Management: If combined, administer the P-gp inhibitor simultaneously with, or after, the dose of afatinib. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of afatinib toxicity and if the combination is not tolerated, reduce the afatinib dose by 10 mg. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Albendazole: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Albendazole. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alfentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfentanil. Management: If use of alfentanil and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is necessary, consider dosage reduction of alfentanil until stable drug effects are achieved. Frequently monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation when these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Aliskiren: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Aliskiren. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Alitretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alitretinoin (Systemic). Management: Consider reducing the alitretinoin dose to 10 mg when used together with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased alitretinoin effects/toxicities if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Almotriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Almotriptan. Management: Limit initial almotriptan dose to 6.25 mg and maximum dose to 12.5 mg in any 24-period when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Avoid concurrent use in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Alosetron: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alosetron. Risk C: Monitor therapy

ALPRAZolam: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of ALPRAZolam. Specifically, this occurs with ritonavir initiation/short-term use. Management: Reduce alprazolam dose by 50% when ritonavir and alprazolam are initiated together, or when ritonavir is initiated in a patient already treated with alprazolam. No alprazolam dose reduction required in patients taking ritonavir for more than 10 to 14 days Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Amiodarone: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Amiodarone. Management: Ritonavir US prescribing information lists this combination as contraindicated. Amiodarone use should be avoided with lopinavir/ritonavir, but if the combination must be used, monitor closely for increased amiodarone serum concentrations and effects. Risk X: Avoid combination

AmLODIPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban. Management: US labeling recommends a 50% apixaban dose reduction in patients who would otherwise receive 5 or 10 mg twice daily, and avoiding in patients who would otherwise receive 2.5 mg twice daily. Canadian labeling lists any combined use as contraindicated. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Risk X: Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Aripiprazole dose reductions are required for indications other than major depressive disorder. Dose reductions vary based on formulation, CYP2D6 genotype, and use of CYP2D6 inhibitors. See full interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Decrease aripiprazole lauroxil dose to next lower strength if used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors for over 14 days. No dose adjustment needed if using the lowest dose (441 mg). Max dose is 441 mg in CYP2D6 PMs or if also taking strong CYP2D6 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Artemether and Lumefantrine: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Artemether and Lumefantrine. Specifically, the concentrations of lumefantrine may be increased. Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Artemether and Lumefantrine. Specifically, concentrations of artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the active metabolite of artemether, may be decreased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Artesunate: Ritonavir may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Artesunate. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Artesunate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Asciminib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Asciminib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Astemizole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Astemizole. Risk X: Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Atazanavir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Atazanavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Atogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Atogepant. Management: The recommended dose of atogepant is 10 mg once daily when coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Atorvastatin: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Atorvastatin. Management: Use lowest atorvastatin dose needed. If ritonavir is combined with another protease inhibitor, see the drug interaction monograph for that protease inhibitor. Consider temporarily discontinuing atorvastatin during treatment with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Atovaquone: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Atovaquone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Avacopan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avacopan. Management: Decrease the avacopan dose to 30 mg once daily during coadministration with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil. Risk X: Avoid combination

Avapritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avapritinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of axitinib with any strong CYP3A inhibitor whenever possible. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor must be used with axitinib, a 50% axitinib dose reduction is recommended. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Barnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Barnidipine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Bedaquiline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Bedaquiline. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bedaquiline. Management: Limit duration of concurrent use of bedaquiline with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors to no more than 14 days, unless the benefit of continued use outweighs the possible risks. Monitor for toxic effects of bedaquiline, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Benidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benidipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Benperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the concentration of hydrocodone may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Berotralstat: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Berotralstat. Management: Decrease the berotralstat dose to 110 mg daily when combined with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Betamethasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Nasal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Ophthalmic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bictegravir: UGT1A1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Bictegravir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bilastine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bilastine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Blonanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Blonanserin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bosentan: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan. Management: Dose adjustment of bosentan and increased monitoring for bosentan toxicities is necessary when these agents are combined. See full drug interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Brentuximab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: Reduce brexpiprazole dose 50% with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; reduce to 25% of usual if used with both a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and a CYP2D6 inhibitor in patients not being treated for MDD, or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor used in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combination cannot be avoided, reduce the brigatinib dose by approximately 50%, rounding to the nearest tablet strength (ie, from 180 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Bromocriptine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromocriptine. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of bromocriptine with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased bromocriptine toxicities and consider bromocriptine dose reductions. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Bromperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Brotizolam [INT]: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brotizolam [INT]. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Nasal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Oral Inhalation). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased corticosteroid adverse effects during coadministration of inhaled budesonide and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic). Management: Avoid the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and oral budesonide. If patients receive both budesonide and a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, they should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of corticosteroid excess. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Risk X: Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Buprenorphine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

BuPROPion: CYP2B6 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of BuPROPion. Risk C: Monitor therapy

BusPIRone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of BusPIRone. Management: Limit the buspirone dose to 2.5 mg daily and monitor patients for increased buspirone effects/toxicities if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Dose adjustments of buspirone or a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor should be based on clinical assessment. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Butorphanol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Butorphanol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cabazitaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabazitaxel. Management: Concurrent use of cabazitaxel with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 should be avoided when possible. If such a combination must be used, consider a 25% reduction in the cabazitaxel dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cabotegravir: UGT1A1 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of Cabotegravir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with cabozantinib if possible. If combined, decrease cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) by 40 mg from previous dose or decrease cabozantinib tablets (Cabometyx) by 20 mg from previous dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Calcifediol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Calcifediol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Calcitriol (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Calcitriol (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Canagliflozin: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Canagliflozin. Management: Consider increasing canagliflozin dose to 200 mg/day in patients tolerating 100 mg/day. A further increase to 300 mg/day can be considered in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Capmatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Capmatinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of CarBAMazepine. Management: Consider avoiding this combination due to the potential for decreased ritonavir concentrations and the possible development of resistance. If combined, monitor for increased carbamazepine concentrations and effects and decreased ritonavir effects. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cariprazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Cariprazine. Specifically, concentrations of didesmethylcariprazine (DDCAR), the primary active metabolite of cariprazine, may increase. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cariprazine. Management: Decrease cariprazine dose 50% (4.5 mg to 1.5 mg or 3 mg; 1.5 mg to 1.5 mg every other day) if starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. If on a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, start cariprazine at 1.5 mg day 1, 0 mg day 2, then 1.5 mg daily. May increase to 3 mg daily Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cat's Claw: May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Celiprolol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Celiprolol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ceritinib. Management: Avoid this combination whenever possible. If combined, the ceritinib dose should be reduced by approximately one-third (to the nearest 150 mg). Resume the prior ceritinib dose after cessation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

ChlordiazePOXIDE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ChlordiazePOXIDE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ciclesonide (Oral Inhalation). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cilnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilnidipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cilostazol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Decrease the dose of cilostazol to 50 mg twice daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cinacalcet: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cinacalcet. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cisapride: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cisapride. Risk X: Avoid combination

Cladribine: Inhibitors of Equilibrative Nucleoside (ENT1) and Concentrative Nucleoside (CNT3) Transport Proteins may increase the serum concentration of Cladribine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ENT1 or CNT3 inhibitors during the 4 to 5 day oral cladribine treatment cycles whenever possible. If combined, consider an ENT1 or CNT3 inhibitor dose reduction and separation in the timing of administration. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Clarithromycin: Protease Inhibitors may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Do not exceed clarithromycin doses greater than 1,000 mg/day in patients taking protease inhibitors. If CrCL is 30 to 60 mL/min, reduced clarithromycin dose 50%. If CrCL is less than 30 mL/min, reduced clarithromycin dose 75%. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Clindamycin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Clindamycin (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Clobetasone: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Clobetasone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Clofazimine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk C: Monitor therapy

ClonazePAM: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ClonazePAM. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Clopidogrel: Ritonavir may diminish the antiplatelet effect of Clopidogrel. Ritonavir may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clopidogrel. Management: Avoid coadministration of clopidogrel and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors or nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. If coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor closely for evidence of diminished antiplatelet response to clopidogrel with use of this combination. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Clorazepate: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Clorazepate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP1A2 Inducers (Weak) may decrease the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: May enhance the therapeutic effect of Ritonavir. Specifically, cobicistat and ritonavir have overlapping effects on the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of other drugs. Risk X: Avoid combination

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Colchicine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Colchicine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a P-gp inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Conivaptan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Management: If concomitant use of copanlisib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce the copanlisib dose to 45 mg. Monitor patients for increased copanlisib effects/toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cortisone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cortisone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of crizotinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, crizotinib dose reductions are required, which vary according to indication. See full interaction monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Cyclophosphamide: Protease Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cyclophosphamide. Specifically, the incidences of neutropenia, infection, and mucositis may be increased. Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Cyclophosphamide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cyclophosphamide: CYP2B6 Inducers (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Cyclophosphamide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Management: Monitor cyclosporine serum concentrations and clinical cyclosporine closely with concurrent use of any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Cyclosporine dose reductions and/or prolongation of the dosing interval will likely be required. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk X: Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cyproterone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cyproterone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Management: Consider alternatives to any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor for patients being treated with dabrafenib. If such a combination cannot be avoided, monitor closely for evidence of dabrafenib-related adverse effects. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Management: Decrease the daclatasvir dose to 30 mg once daily if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Daridorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Daridorexant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Darifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Darifenacin. Management: Limit the darifenacin dose to no more than 7.5 mg daily if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor patients for increased darifenacin toxicities (eg, dry mouth, constipation, headache, CNS effects) when these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Darolutamide: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Darolutamide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dasatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: This combination should be avoided if possible. If combined, decrease dasatinib dose from 140 mg to 40 mg, 100 mg to 20 mg, or 70 mg to 20 mg. For patients taking 60 mg or 40 mg daily, stop dasatinib until the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Deferasirox. Management: Avoid combination when possible; if the combination must be used, consider a 50% increase in initial deferasirox dose, with monitoring of serum ferritin concentrations and clinical responses to guide further dosing. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Delamanid: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Delamanid. Management: Increase ECG monitoring frequency if delamanid is combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors due to the risk for QTc interval prolongation. Continue frequent ECG assessments throughout full delamanid treatment period. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Delavirdine: May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Safe and effective doses for coadministration have not been determined according to ritonavir prescribing information. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DexAMETHasone (Ophthalmic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

DexAMETHasone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DexAMETHasone (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Diamorphine: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Diamorphine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DiazePAM: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of DiazePAM. Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of DiazePAM. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Digoxin: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Management: Reduce the digoxin dose by approximately 30% to 50%, or reduce the dosing frequency, when these agents are combined. Monitor digoxin levels closely and adjust digoxin dose as needed. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

DilTIAZem: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DilTIAZem. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Disopyramide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Disopyramide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Disulfiram: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Products Containing Ethanol. Management: Do not use disulfiram with dosage forms that contain ethanol. Risk X: Avoid combination

DOCEtaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOCEtaxel. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of docetaxel and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined use is unavoidable, consider a 50% docetaxel dose reduction and monitor for increased docetaxel toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dofetilide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Domperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Domperidone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Doxazosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Doxazosin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Doxercalciferol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Doxercalciferol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Risk X: Avoid combination

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Risk X: Avoid combination

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Dutasteride: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dutasteride. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Duvelisib. Management: Reduce the dose of duvelisib to 15 mg twice a day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor closely for evidence of altered response to treatment. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dydrogesterone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dydrogesterone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ebastine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ebastine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ebastine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Efavirenz: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ritonavir. Efavirenz may increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Efavirenz. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Efonidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Efonidipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Elagolix: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix. Management: Use of the elagolix 200 mg twice daily dose with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor for longer than 1 month is not recommended. Limit combined use of the elagolix 150 mg once daily dose with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor to a maximum of 6 months. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Elbasvir and Grazoprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elbasvir and Grazoprevir. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased elbasvir/grazoprevir toxicities, including ALT elevations. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eletriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor. Management: When combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, administer two elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor tablets (100 mg/50 mg/75 mg) in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. No evening doses of ivacaftor (150 mg) alone should be administered. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Reduce eliglustat dose to 84 mg daily in CYP2D6 EMs when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated in CYP2D6 IMs, PMs, or in CYP2D6 EMs who are also taking strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eluxadoline: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Eluxadoline. Management: Decrease the eluxadoline dose to 75 mg twice daily if combined with ritonavir and monitor patients for increased eluxadoline effects/toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid use of encorafenib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, decrease encorafenib from 450 mg to 150 mg; or from 300 mg, 225 mg, or 150 mg to 75 mg. Once the CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued for 3 to 5 half-lives, resume prior dose. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Enfortumab Vedotin: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Enfortumab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Entrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Entrectinib. Management: Avoid strong CYP3A4 inhibitors during treatment with entrectinib when possible. If combined in adults and those 12 yrs of age or older with a BSA of at least 1.5 square meters, reduce dose to 100 mg/day. Avoid if BSA is less than 1.5 square meters. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Erdafitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erdafitinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of erdafitinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, monitor closely for erdafitinib adverse reactions and consider dose modifications accordingly. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ergot Derivatives (Vasoconstrictive CYP3A4 Substrates): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ergot Derivatives (Vasoconstrictive CYP3A4 Substrates). Risk X: Avoid combination

Erlotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Avoid use of this combination when possible. When the combination must be used, monitor the patient closely for the development of erlotinib-associated adverse reactions, and if such severe reactions occur, reduce the erlotinib dose (in 50 mg decrements). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Erythromycin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erythromycin (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Estrogen Derivatives: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Eszopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eszopiclone. Management: Limit the eszopiclone dose to 2 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased eszopiclone effects and toxicities (eg, somnolence, drowsiness, CNS depression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Etizolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Etizolam. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Etoposide: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Etoposide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Etoposide Phosphate: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Etoposide Phosphate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Etravirine: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Etravirine. Management: Avoid concomitant use of etravirine with antiviral doses of ritonavir; use with ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir or with ritonavir-boosted tipranavir is also not recommended. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Everolimus: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Risk X: Avoid combination

Evogliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Evogliptin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fedratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fedratinib. Management: Consider alternatives when possible. If used together, decrease fedratinib dose to 200 mg/day. After the inhibitor is stopped, increase fedratinib to 300 mg/day for the first 2 weeks and then to 400 mg/day as tolerated. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Felodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Felodipine. Management: Consider using lower felodipine doses when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor patients for increased felodipine effects and toxicities (eg, hypotension, edema) when combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Management: Consider fentanyl dose reductions when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for respiratory depression and sedation. Upon discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, consider a fentanyl dose increase; monitor for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fesoterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine. Management: Limit fesoterodine doses to 4 mg daily in patients who are also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. This combination is not recommended in pediatric patients weighing 25 kg up to 35 kg. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fexinidazole: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Risk X: Avoid combination

Finerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Finerenone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Flecainide: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Flecainide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Management: Use of flibanserin with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. If starting flibanserin, start 2 weeks after the last dose of the CYP3A4 inhibitor. If starting a CYP3A4 inhibitor, start 2 days after the last dose of flibanserin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Flurazepam: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Flurazepam. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fluticasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Nasal). Risk X: Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination if possible. Coadministration of fluticasone propionate and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is not recommended. If combined, monitor patients for systemic corticosteroid adverse effects (eg, adrenal suppression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fluticasone (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fosamprenavir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fosamprenavir. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Fosamprenavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Fosphenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Fosphenytoin. Management: Consider avoiding when possible. Dose adjustments may be required. Monitor phenytoin concentrations, and for therapeutic response to fosphenytoin and ritonavir, particularly with any dose adjustments. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Fostamatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fostamatinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Fusidic Acid (Systemic). Fusidic Acid (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Galantamine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Galantamine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Garlic: May decrease the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Risk X: Avoid combination

Gefitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Gilteritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gilteritinib. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with gilteritinib. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor more closely for evidence of gilteritinib toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Glasdegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Glasdegib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If the combination must be used, monitor closely for evidence of QT interval prolongation and other adverse reactions to glasdegib. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. Risk X: Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Reduce the extended-release guanfacine dose 50% when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased guanfacine toxicities when these agents are combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Halofantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Halofantrine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination whenever possible. If combined, monitor closely for halofantrine toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Haloperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Haloperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Hormonal Contraceptives: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Hormonal Contraceptives. Specifically, protease inhibitors may decrease concentrations of estrogens. Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Hormonal Contraceptives. Specifically, protease inhibitors may increase concentrations of progestins. Management: Use alternative or additional nonhormonal forms of contraception when estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives are combined with protease inhibitors. Progestin-only contraceptives can be used without back up, but monitor for progestin toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Hydrocortisone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Hydrocortisone (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ibrexafungerp: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrexafungerp. Management: Decrease the ibrexafungerp dose to 150 mg every 12 hours for 2 doses in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ibrutinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used short-term (eg, anti-infectives for 7 days or less), interrupt ibrutinib therapy until the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Risk X: Avoid combination

Idelalisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Idelalisib. Management: Use alternative therapies that are not strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If unable to use alternative drugs, monitor patients more frequently for idelalisib toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Iloperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolites P88 and P95 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone. Management: Reduce iloperidone dose by half when administered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Imidafenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imidafenacin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Indinavir: Ritonavir may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Indinavir. Specifically, the risk for nephrolithiasis may be increased with this combination. Indinavir may increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Indinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Infigratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Infigratinib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Infigratinib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Infigratinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Irinotecan Products: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. Management: Avoid administration of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors during and within 1 week prior to irinotecan administration, unless no therapeutic alternatives to these agents exist. If combined, monitor closely for increased irinotecan toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase isavuconazole serum concentrations. Risk X: Avoid combination

Isradipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Isradipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Istradefylline: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Istradefylline. Management: Limit the maximum istradefylline dose to 20 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased istradefylline effects/toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Itraconazole: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Management: Limit the adult maximum itraconazole dose to 200 mg/day in patients receiving ritonavir. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Management: Ivacaftor dose reductions are required; consult full drug interaction monograph content for age- and weight-specific recommendations. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivosidenib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with ivosidenib whenever possible. When combined use is required, reduce the ivosidenib dose to 250 mg once daily and monitor for increased ivosidenib toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ixabepilone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ixabepilone. Management: Avoid use of ixabepilone and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, reduce the ixabepilone dose to 20 mg/m2. The previous ixabepilone dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ketamine: CYP2B6 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Ketamine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ketamine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ketamine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ketoconazole (Systemic): Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Ketoconazole (Systemic). Management: Limit the adult maximum ketoconazole dose to 200 mg/day in patients receiving ritonavir. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lacidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lacidipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

LamoTRIgine: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of LamoTRIgine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Management: Avoid use of lapatinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, a reduced lapatinib dose of 500 mg daily should be considered. The previous lapatinib dose can be resumed 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with larotrectinib. If this combination cannot be avoided, reduce the larotrectinib dose by 50%. Increase to previous dose after stopping the inhibitor after a period of 3 to 5 times the inhibitor's half-life. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lefamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lefamulin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lefamulin tablets and strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lemborexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lemborexant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Letermovir: May increase the serum concentration of UGT1A1 Inducers. Risk X: Avoid combination

Leuprolide and Norethindrone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Leuprolide and Norethindrone. Specifically, concentrations of norethindrone may increase. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levamlodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levamlodipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levobupivacaine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levobupivacaine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levoketoconazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levoketoconazole. Risk X: Avoid combination

Levomethadone: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Levomethadone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Levomilnacipran: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levomilnacipran. Management: The dose of levomilnacipran should not exceed 80 mg once daily when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lidocaine (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lonafarnib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lonafarnib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lopinavir: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Lopinavir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Management: Avoid use of lorlatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If the combination cannot be avoided, reduce the lorlatinib dose from 100 mg once daily to 75 mg once daily, or from 75 mg once daily to 50 mg once daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lovastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Lovastatin. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lumateperone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumateperone. Management: Limit the lumateperone dose to 10.5 mg once daily when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Risk X: Avoid combination

Lurbinectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurbinectedin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Manidipine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of manidipine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased manidipine effects and toxicities. Manidipine dose reductions may be required. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Maraviroc: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Maraviroc. Management: Reduce maraviroc to 150mg twice/day in adult and pediatrics weighing 40kg or more. See full interaction monograph for dose adjustments in pediatrics weighing 10 to less than 40kg. Do not use if CrCl less than 30mL/min or in those weighing less than 10 kg. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Mavacamten: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mavacamten. Risk X: Avoid combination

Mebendazole: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Mebendazole. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mefloquine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mefloquine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Meperidine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Meperidine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Meptazinol: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Meptazinol. Risk X: Avoid combination

Methadone: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Methadone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Methotrimeprazine: Products Containing Ethanol may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methotrimeprazine. Specifically, CNS depressant effects may be increased. Management: Avoid products containing alcohol in patients treated with methotrimeprazine. Risk X: Avoid combination

MethylPREDNISolone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

MetroNIDAZOLE (Systemic): Ritonavir may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of MetroNIDAZOLE (Systemic). Specifically, the combination of ritonavir oral solution or ritonavir soft gelatin capsule, both of which contain alcohol, and metronidazole may result in a disulfiram-like reaction. Risk X: Avoid combination

Midazolam: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Midazolam. Management: Oral midazolam is contraindicated with protease inhibitors. Avoid use with nasal midazolam. Consider alternatives to use with other routes of midazolam (IV, IM) when possible. Consider use of lower midazolam doses if combined. Risk X: Avoid combination

Midostaurin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Midostaurin. Management: Seek alternatives to the concomitant use of midostaurin and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor patients for increased risk of adverse reactions. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MiFEPRIStone. Management: For treatment of hyperglycemia in Cushing's syndrome, start mifepristone at 300 mg/day, may titrate to a maximum of 900 mg/day. If starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and taking > 300 mg/day mifepristone, decrease the mifepristone dose by 300 mg/day. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Management: Consider using a lower dose of mirodenafil when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased mirodenafil effects/toxicities with the use of this combination. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Mirtazapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirtazapine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mitapivat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mitapivat. Risk X: Avoid combination

Mobocertinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Mobocertinib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mobocertinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Mometasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Nasal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mometasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Oral Inhalation). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mometasone (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mometasone (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Morphine (Systemic): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Morphine (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nadolol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Nadolol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nalfurafine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nalfurafine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nefazodone: May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Nefazodone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nelfinavir: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Nelfinavir. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Safe and effective doses for coadministration have not been determined according to the nelfinavir prescribing information. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Neratinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

NiCARdipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NiCARdipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

NIFEdipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NIFEdipine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, initiate nifedipine at the lowest dose available and monitor patients closely for increased nifedipine effects and toxicities (eg, hypotension, edema). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Nilotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Management: Avoid if possible. If combination needed, decrease nilotinib to 300 mg once/day for patients with resistant or intolerant Ph+ CML or to 200 mg once/day for patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Nilvadipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nilvadipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nintedanib: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Nintedanib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nirmatrelvir: May increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nitrendipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nitrendipine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

OLANZapine: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of OLANZapine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Olaparib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with olaparib, if possible. If such concurrent use cannot be avoided, the dose of olaparib tablets should be reduced to 100 mg twice daily and the dose of olaparib capsules should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Oliceridine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oliceridine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Olmutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Olmutinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Orlistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Antiretroviral Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Osilodrostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Osilodrostat. Management: Reduce osilodrostat dose by 50% during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ospemifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ospemifene. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Oxybutynin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oxybutynin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

OxyCODONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OxyCODONE. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of OxyCODONE. Serum concentrations of the active metabolite oxymorphone may also be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PACLitaxel (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PACLitaxel (Conventional). Risk C: Monitor therapy

PACLitaxel (Protein Bound): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PACLitaxel (Protein Bound). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pacritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pacritinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with palbociclib when possible. If the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided, decrease the palbociclib dose to 75 mg/day. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Palovarotene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Palovarotene. Risk X: Avoid combination

Panobinostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Panobinostat. Management: Reduce the panobinostat dose to 10 mg when it must be used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor patient response to therapy closely for evidence of more severe adverse effects related to panobinostat therapy. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Parecoxib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Parecoxib. Specifically, serum concentrations of the active moiety valdecoxib may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Paricalcitol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Paricalcitol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Pemigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pemigatinib. Management: If combined use cannot be avoided, reduce the pemigatinib dose from 13.5 mg daily to 9 mg daily, or from 9 mg daily to 4.5 mg daily. Resume prior pemigatinib dose after stopping the strong inhibitor once 3 half-lives of the inhibitor has passed. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pexidartinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Management: Avoid use of pexidartinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If combined use cannot be avoided, pexidartinib dose should be reduced. Decrease 800 mg or 600 mg daily doses to 200 mg twice daily. Decrease doses of 400 mg per day to 200 mg once daily Risk D: Consider therapy modification

PHENobarbital: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of PHENobarbital. PHENobarbital may decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Management: Consider avoiding this combination due to the potential for decreased ritonavir concentrations and the possible development of resistance. If combined, monitor for decreased phenobarbital and ritonavir concentrations and effects during coadministration. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Phenytoin. Management: Consider avoiding when possible. Dose adjustments may be required. Monitor phenytoin concentrations, and for therapeutic response to phenytoin and ritonavir, particularly with any dose adjustments. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Management: Decrease the pimavanserin dose to 10 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pimecrolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of Pimecrolimus. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Risk X: Avoid combination

Piperaquine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Piperaquine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Polatuzumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Polatuzumab Vedotin. Exposure to unconjugated MMAE, the cytotoxic small molecule component of polatuzumab vedotin, may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PONATinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PONATinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use if possible. If combined, reduce ponatinib dose as follows: If taking 45 mg, reduce to 30 mg; if taking 30 mg, reduce to 15 mg; if taking 15 mg, reduce to 10 mg. If taking 10 mg, avoid concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Pralsetinib: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Pralsetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use if possible. If combined, reduce the pralsetinib dose. If taking 400 mg or 300 mg once daily, reduce to 200 mg once daily. If taking 200 mg once daily, reduce to 100 mg once daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Praziquantel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Praziquantel. Risk C: Monitor therapy

PrednisoLONE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PrednisoLONE (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

PredniSONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PredniSONE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Primidone: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Primidone. Primidone may decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Management: Consider avoiding this combination due to the potential for decreased ritonavir concentrations and the possible development of resistance. If combined, monitor for decreased phenobarbital and ritonavir concentrations and effects during coadministration. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Proguanil: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Proguanil. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Propafenone: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Propafenone. Risk X: Avoid combination

QUEtiapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: In quetiapine treated patients, reduce quetiapine to one-sixth of original dose after starting a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those on strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, start quetiapine at lowest dose and up-titrate as needed. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

QuiNIDine: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of QuiNIDine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Quinidine (Non-Therapeutic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Quinidine (Non-Therapeutic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

QuiNINE: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of QuiNINE. This effect has been seen with lopinavir/ritonavir. The individual contributions of lopinavir and ritonavir to this effect are unclear. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of QuiNINE. Risk X: Avoid combination

Radotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Radotinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ramelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ramelteon. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Reboxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Reboxetine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Red Yeast Rice: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Red Yeast Rice. Specifically, concentrations of lovastatin and related compounds found in Red Yeast Rice may be increased. Risk X: Avoid combination

Regorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Regorafenib. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Regorafenib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Relugolix: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Relugolix. Management: Avoid coadministration of relugolix with oral P-gp inhibitors whenever possible. If combined, take relugolix at least 6 hours prior to the P-gp inhibitor and monitor patients more frequently for adverse reactions. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Relugolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Relugolix, Estradiol, and Norethindrone. Management: Avoid use of relugolix/estradiol/norethindrone with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. If concomitant use is unavoidable, relugolix/estradiol/norethindrone should be administered at least 6 hours before the P-gp inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Repaglinide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Repaglinide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Retapamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Retapamulin. Management: The use of retapamulin with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is not recommended in patients less than 2 years old. No action is required in other populations. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ribociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid use of ribociclib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible; if combined use cannot be avoided, reduce ribociclib dose to 400 mg once daily. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Rifabutin: Ritonavir may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Rifabutin. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Rifabutin. Management: Ritonavir labeling recommends reducing rifabutin doses by at least 75% (ie, 150 mg every other day or 3 times per week). Clinical practice guidelines recommend rifabutin 150 mg daily if combined with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. RifAMPin may increase the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk X: Avoid combination

RifAXIMin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RifAXIMin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rilpivirine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rilpivirine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rimegepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Riociguat: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Riociguat. Management: Consider a riociguat starting dose of 0.5 mg 3 times a day when initiating riociguat in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitors. Monitor for hypotension when these agents are combined and reduce the riociguat dose as needed. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ripretinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ripretinib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

RisperiDONE: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RisperiDONE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rivaroxaban: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. Risk X: Avoid combination

Roflumilast-Containing Products: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Roflumilast-Containing Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

RomiDEPsin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

RomiDEPsin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rosuvastatin: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Rupatadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rupatadine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ruxolitinib (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib (Systemic). Management: This combination should be avoided under some circumstances; dose adjustments may be required in some circumstances and depend on the indication for ruxolitinib. See monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Ruxolitinib (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib (Topical). Risk X: Avoid combination

Sacituzumab Govitecan: UGT1A1 Inducers may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Sacituzumab Govitecan. Specifically, concentrations of SN-38 may be decreased. Risk X: Avoid combination

Salmeterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol. Risk X: Avoid combination

Saquinavir: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Saquinavir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. Risk C: Monitor therapy

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Management: Limit the saxagliptin dose to 2.5 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. When using the saxagliptin combination products saxagliptin/dapagliflozin or saxagliptin/dapagliflozin/metformin, avoid use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Secnidazole: Products Containing Ethanol may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Secnidazole. Risk X: Avoid combination

Selpercatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selpercatinib. Management: Avoid combination if possible. If use is necessary, reduce selpercatinib dose as follows: from 120 mg twice/day to 40 mg twice/day, or from 160 mg twice/day to 80 mg twice/day. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Selumetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Selumetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use when possible. If combined, selumetinib dose reductions are recommended and vary based on body surface area and selumetinib dose. For details, see the full drug interaction monograph or selumetinib prescribing information. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sertindole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sertindole. Risk X: Avoid combination

Sibutramine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Sibutramine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sibutramine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sildenafil: Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Management: Use of protease inhibitors and sildenafil for the treatment of PAH is contraindicated. If using sildenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, limit the sildenafil dose to 25 mg and do not use more frequently than every 48 hours. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Silodosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Risk X: Avoid combination

Simvastatin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Simvastatin. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Sirolimus (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus (Conventional). Management: Avoid concurrent use of sirolimus with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible and alternative agents with lesser interaction potential with sirolimus should be considered. Concomitant use of sirolimus and voriconazole or posaconazole is contraindicated. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus (Conventional): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus (Conventional). Management: Avoid concurrent use of sirolimus with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors when possible and alternative agents with lesser interaction potential with sirolimus should be considered. Monitor for increased sirolimus concentrations/toxicity if combined. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus (Protein Bound): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus (Protein Bound). Risk X: Avoid combination

Sirolimus (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Solifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Solifenacin. Management: Limit adult solifenacin doses to 5 mg daily and limit doses in pediatric patients to the recommended weight-based starting dose (and do not increase the dose) when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Risk X: Avoid combination

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Ritonavir. Risk X: Avoid combination

SUFentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUFentanil. Management: If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is initiated in a patient on sufentanil, consider a sufentanil dose reduction and monitor for increased sufentanil effects and toxicities (eg, respiratory depression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If combined, decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 37.5 mg daily when treating GIST or RCC. Decrease sunitinib dose to a minimum of 25 mg daily when treating PNET. Monitor patients for both reduced efficacy and increased toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Tacrolimus dose reductions may be needed with concurrent ritonavir. Monitor tacrolimus concentrations closely to determine dose; doses of tacrolimus 0.5 mg to 1 mg every week may be adequate. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tadalafil: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Management: In patients treated for pulmonary arterial hypertension avoid initiating ritonavir in patients taking tadalafil; dose adjustments are required. For ED or BPH treatment, decrease tadalafil max dose and frequency. See full monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Talazoparib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tamsulosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tasimelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tasimelteon. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tazemetostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tazemetostat. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tegaserod: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Tegaserod. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Telithromycin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Telithromycin. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Temsirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Temsirolimus. Specifically, concentrations of sirolimus may be increased. Management: Avoid concomitant use of temsirolimus and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If coadministration is unavoidable, decrease temsirolimus dose to 12.5 mg per week. Resume previous temsirolimus dose 1 week after discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Teniposide: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Teniposide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tenofovir Alafenamide: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Alafenamide. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tepotinib: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Strong) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Tepotinib. Risk X: Avoid combination

Terfenadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Terfenadine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: If combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, tezacaftor/ivacaftor should be administered in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. Tezacaftor/ivacaftor dose depends on age and weight; see full Lexi-Interact monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Theophylline Derivatives: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Theophylline Derivatives. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Thioridazine: CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Thioridazine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of thioridazine and weak CYP2D6 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. Some weak CYP2D6 inhibitors list use with thioridazine as a contraindication. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Thiotepa: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Thiotepa. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Thiotepa. Management: Avoid coadministration of thiotepa and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor for thiotepa adverse effects and decreased efficacy. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Thyroid Products: Ritonavir may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Risk X: Avoid combination

Tisotumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tisotumab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Management: Tofacitinib dose reductions are recommended when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Recommended dose adjustments vary by tofacitinib formulation and therapeutic indication. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tolterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolterodine. Management: The maximum recommended dose of tolterodine is 2 mg per day (1 mg twice daily for immediate-release tablets or 2 mg daily for extended-release capsules) when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Topotecan: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan. Risk X: Avoid combination

Toremifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Toremifene. Management: Use of toremifene with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided if possible. If coadministration is necessary, monitor for increased toremifene toxicities, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Risk X: Avoid combination

TraMADol: Ritonavir may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of TraMADol. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of TraMADol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

TraZODone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider the use of a lower trazodone dose and monitor for increased trazodone effects (eg, sedation, QTc prolongation) if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Tretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tretinoin (Systemic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triamcinolone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Nasal). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triamcinolone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Ophthalmic). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triamcinolone (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased corticosteroid adverse effects during coadministration of triamcinolone and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Triamcinolone (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triamcinolone (Topical). Risk C: Monitor therapy

Triazolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ubrogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ubrogepant. Risk X: Avoid combination

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Udenafil. Risk X: Avoid combination

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Upadacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Upadacitinib. Management: For ulcerative colitis use upadacitinib 30 mg/day for 8 weeks for induction, then 15 mg/day for maintenance. For rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or atopic dermatitis use upadacitinib 15 mg/day. Monitor for upadacitinib toxicities. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Valbenazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Valbenazine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Valbenazine. Management: Reduce the valbenazine dose to 40 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Valproate Products: Protease Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Valproate Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vardenafil: Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil. Management: Limit Levitra (vardenafil) dose to a single 2.5 mg dose within a 72-hour period if combined with ritonavir. Avoid concomitant use of Staxyn (vardenafil) and ritonavir. Combined use is contraindicated outside of the US. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Vemurafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of vemurafenib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If concomitant use is unavoidable, consider a vemurafenib dose reduction if clinically indicated. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Coadministration is contraindicated during venetoclax initiation and ramp-up in CLL/SLL patients. Reduced venetoclax doses are required during ramp-up for patients with AML, and all maintenance therapy. See full Lexi Interact monograph for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Reduce the venetoclax dose by at least 50% in patients requiring concomitant treatment with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. Resume the previous venetoclax dose 2 to 3 days after discontinuation of a P-gp inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Verapamil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Verapamil. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vilanterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilanterol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Limit the maximum vilazodone dose to 20 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. The original vilazodone dose can be resumed following discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

VinBLAStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinBLAStine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine. Management: Seek alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor closely for vincristine toxicities (eg, neurotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, myelosuppression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Risk X: Avoid combination

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Risk X: Avoid combination

Vindesine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vindesine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vinflunine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Vinflunine. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinflunine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Vinorelbine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Vitamin K Antagonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Voclosporin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Voclosporin. Risk X: Avoid combination

Vorapaxar: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vorapaxar. Risk X: Avoid combination

Voriconazole: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Ritonavir may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole. Management: Concurrent voriconazole and high-dose ritonavir (adult doses of 400 mg every 12 hrs or greater) is contraindicated. Voriconazole with lower-dose ritonavir should be avoided unless benefits outweigh risk of inadequate voriconazole concentrations. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Zanubrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zanubrutinib. Management: Decrease the zanubrutinib dose to 80 mg once daily during coadministration with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Further dose adjustments may be required for zanubrutinib toxicities, refer to prescribing information for details. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Zidovudine: Ritonavir may decrease the serum concentration of Zidovudine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ziprasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ziprasidone. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zolpidem. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Zopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone. Management: If coadministered with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, initiate zopiclone at 3.75 mg in adults, with a maximum dose of 5 mg. Monitor for zopiclone toxicity (eg, drowsiness, confusion, lethargy, ataxia, respiratory depression). Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Food Interactions

Food enhances absorption. Management: Manufacturer recommends taking with food.

Reproductive Considerations

The Health and Human Services (HHS) perinatal HIV guidelines note ritonavir should only be used as a low-dose pharmacologic booster for other protease inhibitors (PI); refer to specific PI monographs for details specific to use in patients planning to become pregnant.

Patients with HIV infection not planning a pregnancy may use any available type of contraception, considering possible drug interactions and contraindications of the specific method. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information specific to use of ritonavir and contraceptives.

Viral suppression sustained below the limits of detection with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and modification of therapy (if needed) is recommended in all patients with HIV infection who are planning a pregnancy. Optimization of the health of the person who will become pregnant and a discussion of the potential risks and benefits of ART during pregnancy is also recommended prior to conception. In most cases, recommendations from the HHS perinatal HIV guidelines (based on data obtained from cisgender women) can be applied to transgender and gender diverse people assigned female sex at birth.

Health care providers caring for couples planning a pregnancy when one or both partners are diagnosed with HIV infection may contact the National Perinatal HIV Hotline (1-888-448-8765) for clinical consultation (HHS [perinatal] 2021).

Pregnancy Considerations

Ritonavir has a low level of transfer across the human placenta.

No increased risk of overall teratogenic effects has been observed following first trimester exposure according to data collected by the antiretroviral pregnancy registry. Maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Actual risks may be influenced by maternal factors, such as disease severity, gestational age at initiation of therapy, and specific ART regimen; therefore, close fetal monitoring is recommended. Because there is clear benefit to appropriate treatment, maternal ART should not be withheld due to concerns for adverse neonatal outcomes. Long-term follow-up is recommended for all infants exposed to antiretroviral medications; children not diagnosed with HIV infection but who were exposed to ART in utero or as a neonate and develop significant organ system abnormalities of unknown etiology (particularly of the CNS or heart) should be evaluated for potential metabolic dysfunction.

The Health and Human Services (HHS) perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend treatment doses of ritonavir in pregnant patients. Ritonavir should only be used as a low-dose booster; when used as a pharmacologic booster for other protease inhibitors (PIs), ritonavir is the preferred pharmacologic booster for use in pregnancy. Refer to specific PI monographs for details.

Plasma levels are lower during pregnancy compared to postpartum; however, dosage adjustment is not needed when used as a low-dose booster in pregnant patients. The oral solution contains alcohol and, therefore, is not recommended for use in patients who are pregnant.

ART is recommended for all pregnant people with HIV infection to maximize their health, maintain the viral load below the limit of detection and reduce the risk of perinatal transmission. Therapy should be individualized following a discussion of the potential risks and benefits of treatment during pregnancy. Patients on fully suppressive regimens prior to pregnancy generally may continue the same regimen considering known pregnancy outcomes and pharmacokinetic data. Monitoring of patients who are pregnant is more frequent than in patients who are not pregnant. ART initiated during pregnancy can be modified after delivery. In most cases, recommendations from the HHS perinatal HIV guidelines (based on data obtained from cisgender women) can be applied to transgender and gender diverse people assigned female sex at birth.

Data collection to monitor pregnancy and infant outcomes following exposure to ART is ongoing. Health care providers are encouraged to enroll patients who are pregnant exposed to antiretroviral medications as early in pregnancy as possible in the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (1-800-258-4263 or https://www.APRegistry.com).

Health care providers caring for pregnant patients with HIV infection and their infants may contact the National Perinatal HIV Hotline (1-888-448-8765) for clinical consultation (HHS [perinatal] 2021).

Breastfeeding Considerations

Ritonavir is present in breast milk.

Ritonavir may be used as a low-dose pharmacologic booster for other protease inhibitors as part of an alternative regimen when acute HIV infection is diagnosed in breastfeeding patients. Breastfeeding should be interrupted when acute HIV infection is suspected and not continued if infection is confirmed. Milk may be expressed and stored while waiting for confirmation.

Maternal or infant antiretroviral therapy does not completely eliminate the risk of postnatal HIV transmission. In addition, multiclass-resistant virus has been detected in breastfeeding infants despite maternal therapy. In the United States, where formula is usually accessible, affordable, safe, and sustainable, and the risk of infant mortality due to diarrhea and respiratory infections is low, the Health and Human Services perinatal HIV guidelines do not recommend breastfeeding for patients with HIV infection when safer infant feeding options are available.

Information is available for counseling and managing patients with HIV infection who are considering breastfeeding (1-888-448-8765). In most cases, recommendations from the HHS perinatal HIV guidelines (based on data obtained from cisgender women) can be applied to transgender and gender diverse people assigned female sex at birth (HHS [perinatal] 2021).

Dietary Considerations

Oral solution contains 43% ethanol by volume. Consider ethanol content of all medications being administered; monitor for toxicity particularly in pediatric patients.

Monitoring Parameters

Triglycerides, cholesterol, CBC, LFTs, CPK, uric acid, basic HIV monitoring, viral load, CD4 count, glucose, serum amylase and lipase

Mechanism of Action

Binds to the site of HIV-1 protease activity and inhibits cleavage of viral Gag-Pol polyprotein precursors into individual functional proteins required for infectious HIV. This results in the formation of immature, noninfectious viral particles.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Variable; increased with food; In the fed state, mean Cmax of the tablet formulation increased by 26% compared to the capsule.

Distribution: High concentrations in serum and lymph nodes; Vd: 0.41 ± 0.25 L/kg

Protein binding: 98% to 99%

Metabolism: Hepatic via CYP3A4 and 2D6; five metabolites, low concentration of an active metabolite (M-2) achieved in plasma (oxidative)

Bioavailability: Absolute bioavailability unknown; tablets are not bioequivalent to capsules; mean peak concentration of tablet was found to be 26% higher than capsule in a single dose study, in patients fed a moderate-fat meal

Half-life elimination: Children: 2 to 4 hours; Adults: 3 to 5 hours

Time to peak, plasma: Oral solution: 2 hours (fasted); 4 hours (nonfasted)

Excretion: Urine (~11%, ~4% as unchanged drug); feces (~86%, ~34% as unchanged drug)

Clearance: Pediatric patients: 1.5 to 1.7 times faster than adults

Pricing: US

Pack (Norvir Oral)

100 mg (per each): $10.29

Solution (Norvir Oral)

80 mg/mL (per mL): $7.20

Tablets (Norvir Oral)

100 mg (per each): $10.29

Tablets (Ritonavir Oral)

100 mg (per each): $9.26

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Brand Names: International
  • Mai Ke Xin (CN);
  • Norvir (AE, AT, AU, BB, BE, BG, BH, CH, CL, CN, CR, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EC, EE, EG, ES, ET, FI, FR, GB, GR, GT, HK, HN, HR, HU, ID, IE, IL, IQ, IR, IS, IT, JO, KR, KW, LT, LU, LV, LY, MT, MX, MY, NI, NL, NO, NZ, OM, PA, PE, PL, PT, QA, RO, RU, SA, SE, SG, SI, SK, SV, SY, TH, TR, TW, UA, VE, YE, ZA);
  • Rinavir (TH);
  • Rinavo (ZA, ZW);
  • Ritovir (IN, UY)


For country abbreviations used in Lexicomp (show table)
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  8. HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in pediatric HIV infection. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/pediatricguidelines.pdf. Updated February 12, 2014. Accessed July 30, 2014.
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  19. Norvir (ritonavir) [prescribing information]. North Chicago, IL: AbbVie Inc; October 2020.
  20. Norvir (ritonavir) capsules [prescribing information]. North Chicago, IL: Abbott Laboratories; August 2019.
  21. Norvir (ritonavir) capsules [prescribing information]. North Chicago, IL: AbbVie Inc; October 2020.
  22. Norvir (ritonavir) tablets, oral solution, and oral powder [prescribing information]. North Chicago, IL: AbbVie Inc; December 2019.
  23. Norvir (ritonavir) [product monograph]. St-Laurent, Quebec, Canada: AbbVie Corporation; July 2021.
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  28. US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Panel on Treatment of HIV During Pregnancy and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in the United States. https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/sites/default/files/guidelines/documents/Perinatal_GL.pdf. Updated December 30, 2021. Accessed January 3, 2022.
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