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Lugano criteria for response assessment in lymphoma

Lugano criteria for response assessment in lymphoma
Response and site PET/CT-based response CT-based response
Complete Complete metabolic response Complete radiologic response (all of the following)
Lymph nodes and extralymphatic sites

Score 1, 2, or 3* with or without a residual mass on 5PS

It is recognized that in Waldeyer's ring or extranodal sites with high physiologic uptake or with activation within spleen or marrow (eg, with chemotherapy or myeloid colony-stimulating factors), uptake may be greater than normal mediastinum and/or liver. In this circumstance, complete metabolic response may be inferred if uptake at sites of initial involvement is no greater than surrounding normal tissue even if the tissue has high physiologic uptake.

Target nodes/nodal masses must regress to ≤1.5 cm in LDi

No extralymphatic sites of disease
Nonmeasured lesions Not applicable Absent
Organ enlargement Not applicable Regress to normal
New lesions None None
Bone marrow No evidence of FDG-avid disease in marrow Normal by morphology; if indeterminate, IHC negative
Partial Partial metabolic response Partial remission (all of the following)
Lymph nodes and extralymphatic sites

Score 4 or 5 with reduced uptake compared with baseline and residual mass(es) of any size

At interim, these findings suggest responding disease

At end of treatment, these findings indicate residual disease

≥50 percent decrease in SPD of up to six target measurable nodes and extranodal sites

When a lesion is too small to measure on CT, assign 5 mm x 5 mm as the default value

When no longer visible, 0 x 0 mm

For a node >5 mm x 5 mm, but smaller than normal, use actual measurement for calculation
Nonmeasured lesions Not applicable Absent/normal, regressed, but no increase
Organ enlargement Not applicable Spleen must have regressed by >50 percent in length beyond normal
New lesions None None
Bone marrow Residual uptake higher than uptake in normal marrow but reduced compared with baseline (diffuse uptake compatible with reactive changes from chemotherapy allowed). If there are persistent focal changes in the marrow in the context of a nodal response, consideration should be given to further evaluation with MRI or biopsy or an interval scan. Not applicable
No response or stable disease No metabolic response Stable disease
Target nodes/nodal masses, extranodal lesions Score 4 or 5 with no significant change in FDG uptake from baseline at interim or end of treatment <50 percent decrease from baseline in SPD of up to six dominant, measurable nodes and extranodal sites; no criteria for progressive disease are met
Nonmeasured lesions Not applicable No increase consistent with progression
Organ enlargement Not applicable No increase consistent with progression
New lesions None None
Bone marrow No change from baseline Not applicable
Progressive disease Progressive metabolic disease Progressive disease requires at least one of the following
Individual target nodes/nodal masses Score 4 or 5 with an increase in intensity of uptake from baseline and/or PPD progression
Extranodal lesions New FDG-avid foci consistent with lymphoma at interim or end-of-treatment assessment

An individual node/lesion must be abnormal with: LDi >1.5 cm and

Increase by ≥50 percent from PPD nadir and

An increase in LDi or SDi from nadir

0.5 cm for lesions ≤2 cm

1.0 cm for lesions >2 cm

In the setting of splenomegaly, the splenic length must increase by >50 percent of the extent of its prior increase beyond baseline (eg, a 15 cm spleen must increase to >16 cm). If no prior splenomegaly, must increase by at least 2 cm from baseline.

New or recurrent splenomegaly
Nonmeasured lesions None New or clear progression of preexisting nonmeasured lesions
New lesions New FDG-avid foci consistent with lymphoma rather than another etiology (eg, infection, inflammation). If uncertain regarding etiology of new lesions, biopsy or interval scan may be considered

Regrowth of previously resolved lesions

A new node >1.5 cm in any axis

A new extranodal site >1.0 cm in any axis; if <1.0 cm in any axis, its presence must be unequivocal and must be attributable to lymphoma

Assessable disease of any size unequivocally attributable to lymphoma
Bone marrow New or recurrent FDG-avid foci New or recurrent involvement
5PS: 5-point scale; CT: computed tomography; FDG: fluorodeoxyglucose; IHC: immunohistochemistry; LDi: longest transverse diameter of a lesion; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; PET: positron emission tomography; PPD: cross product of the LDi and perpendicular diameter; SDi: shortest axis perpendicular to the LDi; SPD: sum of the product of the perpendicular diameters for multiple lesions.
* A score of 3 in many patients indicates a good prognosis with standard treatment, especially if at the time of an interim scan. However, in trials involving PET where de-escalation is investigated, it may be preferable to consider a score of 3 as inadequate response (to avoid undertreatment). Measured dominant lesions: Up to six of the largest dominant nodes, nodal masses, and extranodal lesions selected to be clearly measurable in two diameters. Nodes should preferably be from disparate regions of the body and should include, where applicable, mediastinal and retroperitoneal areas. Non-nodal lesions include those in solid organs (eg, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs), GI involvement, cutaneous lesions, or those noted on palpation. Nonmeasured lesions: Any disease not selected as measured, dominant disease and truly assessable disease should be considered not measured. These sites include any nodes, nodal masses, and extranodal sites not selected as dominant or measurable or that do not meet the requirements for measurability but are still considered abnormal, as well as truly assessable disease, which is any site of suspected disease that would be difficult to follow quantitatively with measurement, including pleural effusions, ascites, bone lesions, leptomeningeal disease, abdominal masses, and other lesions that cannot be confirmed and followed by imaging. In Waldeyer's ring or in extranodal sites (eg, GI tract, liver, bone marrow), FDG uptake may be greater than in the mediastinum with complete metabolic response, but should be no higher than surrounding normal physiologic uptake (eg, with marrow activation as a result of chemotherapy or myeloid growth factors).
¶ PET 5PS: 1, no uptake above background; 2, uptake ≤ mediastinum; 3, uptake > mediastinum but ≤ liver; 4, uptake moderately > liver; 5, uptake markedly higher than liver and/or new lesions; X, new areas of uptake unlikely to be related to lymphoma.
From: Cheson BD, Fisher RI, Barrington SF, et al. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: The Lugano classification. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32(27):3059-67. Reprinted with permission. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved.
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