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Clindamycin (topical): Pediatric drug information

Clindamycin (topical): Pediatric drug information
(For additional information see "Clindamycin (topical): Drug information" and see "Clindamycin (topical): Patient drug information")

For abbreviations, symbols, and age group definitions used in Lexicomp (show table)
Brand Names: US
  • Cleocin;
  • Cleocin-T;
  • Clindacin ETZ;
  • Clindacin Pac;
  • Clindacin-P;
  • Clindagel;
  • Clindesse;
  • Evoclin
Brand Names: Canada
  • Clinda-T;
  • Dalacin T [DSC];
  • Dalacin Vaginal;
  • TARO-Clindamycin
Therapeutic Category
  • Acne Products;
  • Antibiotic, Anaerobic;
  • Antibiotic, Miscellaneous
Dosing: Pediatric

Acne vulgaris: Note: Due to emerging resistance patterns, should not typically be used as monotherapy for the management of acne vulgaris (Eichenfield 2013; AAD [Zaenglein 2016])

Children ≥7 years and Adolescents: Limited data available in <12 years of age (Eichenfield 2013): Topical:

Gel (Clindagel), Foam (Evoclin): Apply to affected area once daily

Gel (Cleocin T), pledget, lotion, solution: Apply a thin film twice daily

Bacterial vaginosis: Limited data available: Adolescents: Intravaginal:

Cream 2%: Limited data available: One full applicator (5 g) inserted intravaginally at bedtime for 7 days (CDC [Workowski 2015]; Red Book [AAP 2015])

Suppository: Insert one ovule (100 mg clindamycin) intravaginally once daily at bedtime for 3 days

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; however, no dosage adjustments are required with systemic clindamycin use.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling; however, no dosage adjustments are required with systemic clindamycin use; use caution with severe hepatic impairment.

Dosing: Adult

(For additional information see "Clindamycin (topical): Drug information")

Acne

Acne: Topical:

Gel (Cleocin T, ClindaMax), pledget, lotion, solution: Apply a thin film twice daily.

Gel (Clindagel), foam (Evoclin): Apply once daily.

Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis:

Note: Treatment is generally not warranted for asymptomatic patients who are not pregnant. When treatment is given, the 7-day regimen is preferred (CDC [Workowski 2021]).

2% cream (Cleocin): Intravaginal: One applicatorful (5 g containing ~100 mg clindamycin) once daily at bedtime for 7 days (CDC [Workowski 2021]).

2% cream (Clindesse) (alternative agent): Intravaginal: One applicatorful (5 g containing ~100 mg clindamycin) once as a single dose (CDC [Workowski 2021]; Faro 2005).

100 mg suppository (alternative agent): Intravaginal: One suppository once daily at bedtime for 3 days (CDC [Workowski 2021]).

Hidradenitis suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativa (off-label use): Solution: Topical: Apply to affected area twice daily (Jemec 2012).

Rosacea

Rosacea (off-label use): Lotion: Topical: Apply twice daily to the face (Wilkin 1993).

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Cream, Vaginal, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Cleocin: 2% (40 g) [contains benzyl alcohol]

Clindesse: 2% (5 g) [contains disodium edta, methylparaben, propylparaben]

Generic: 2% (40 g)

Foam, External, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Evoclin: 1% (50 g, 100 g) [contains alcohol, usp, cetyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Evoclin: 1% (50 g [DSC], 100 g [DSC]) [contains cetyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Generic: 1% (50 g, 100 g)

Gel, External, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Cleocin-T: 1% (30 g, 60 g) [contains methylparaben, propylene glycol]

Clindagel: 1% (75 mL) [contains methylparaben, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol]

Generic: 1% (30 g, 60 g, 75 mL)

Kit, External, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Clindacin ETZ: 1% [contains cetyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Clindacin Pac: 1% [contains cetyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Lotion, External, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Cleocin-T: 1% (60 mL) [contains cetostearyl alcohol, methylparaben]

Generic: 1% (60 mL)

Solution, External, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Cleocin-T: 1% (60 mL [DSC]) [contains isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Generic: 1% (30 mL, 60 mL)

Suppository, Vaginal, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Cleocin: 100 mg (3 ea)

Swab, External, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Cleocin-T: 1% (60 ea) [contains isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Clindacin ETZ: 1% (60 ea) [contains isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Clindacin-P: 1% (69 ea) [contains isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Generic: 1% (60 ea)

Generic Equivalent Available: US

May be product dependent

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Cream, Vaginal, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Dalacin Vaginal: 2% (40 g) [contains benzyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Solution, External, as phosphate [strength expressed as base]:

Clinda-T: 1% (30 mL, 60 mL) [contains isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol]

Dalacin T: 1% ([DSC]) [contains alcohol, usp, propylene glycol]

Generic: 1% (30 mL, 60 mL)

Product Availability

Xaciato Vaginal Gel: FDA approved December 2021; anticipated availability currently unknown. Information pertaining to this product within the monograph is pending revision. Xaciato is indicated for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in female patients 12 years of age and older. Consult the prescribing information for additional information.

Administration: Pediatric

Intravaginal: Do not use for topical therapy, instillation in the eye, or oral administration. Wash hands prior to use. Remove foil from suppository; place cream or suppository into applicator; insert applicator into vagina as far as possible without causing discomfort and expel suppository or cream. Remain lying down for 30 minutes following administration. Wash applicator with soap and water following suppository use; if administering the cream, use each disposable applicator only once.

Topical: For dermal topical use only. Do not use intravaginally, instill in the eye, or administer orally. Avoid contact with eyes, mouth, lips, mucous membranes, or broken skin.

Foam: Before applying foam, wash affected area with mild soap, then dry. Remove cap, hold can at an upright angle, and dispense foam directly into the cap or onto a cool surface; do not dispense foam directly onto hands or face (foam will melt on content with warm skin). If can is warm or foam is runny, run can under cold water. Use fingertips to pick up small amounts of foam and gently massage into affected area until foam disappears. Wash hands after applying. Avoid fire, flame, or smoking during or immediately following application.

Gel, pledget, solution: Solution/pledget contains an alcohol base and if inadvertent contact with mucous membranes occurs, rinse with liberal amounts of water. Remove pledget from foil immediately before use; discard after single use. May use more than one pledget for each application to cover area.

Lotion: Shake well immediately before use; apply topically.

Administration: Adult

Intravaginal:

Cream: Insertion with the applicator should be as far as possible into the vagina without causing discomfort.

Suppository: Remove from packaging prior to use. If applicator is used for administration, insertion should be as far as possible into the vagina without causing discomfort; wash applicator after each use. Patient should lie down after administration to minimize leakage.

Topical:

Foam: Dispense directly into cap or onto a cool surface; do not dispense directly into hands or face (foam will melt on contact with warm skin). Wash skin with mild soap and allow to fully dry. Apply in small amounts to face using fingertips and gently massage into affected areas until foam disappears. Avoid contact with eyes, mouth, lips, mucous membranes, or broken skin.

Gel: Avoid contact with eyes.

Lotion: Shake well immediately before using.

Solution or pledget: Avoid contact with eyes, mouth or other mucous membranes; solution/pledget contains an alcohol base and if inadvertent contact with mucous membranes occurs, rinse with liberal amounts of water. Remove pledget from foil immediately before use; discard after single use. May use more than one pledget for each application to cover area.

Storage/Stability

Cream: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from freezing.

Foam: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Avoid fire, flame, or smoking during or immediately following application. Do not puncture or incinerate container. Do not expose to heat or store at temperatures >49°C (120°F).

Gel: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from freezing.

Clindagel: Do not store in direct sunlight.

Lotion: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from freezing.

Pledget: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from freezing.

Suppository: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Avoid heat >30°C (86°F) and high humidity.

Topical solution: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from freezing.

Use

Topical: Foam, gel, lotion, pledget, solution: Treatment of acne vulgaris (FDA approved in ages ≥12 years and adults)

Vaginal:

Cleocin Vaginal Cream: Treatment of bacterial vaginosis (FDA approved in adults)

Cleocin Ovules, Clindesse cream: Treatment of bacterial vaginosis (FDA approved in post-menarche, nonpregnant adolescents and adults)

Medication Safety Issues
Sound-alike/look-alike issues:

Cleocin may be confused with bleomycin, Clinoril, Cubicin, Lincocin

Clindamycin may be confused with clarithromycin, Claritin, vancomycin

Clindesse may be confused with Clindets [Canada]

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified. Adverse reactions report in adolescents and adults.

Topical:

>10%: Dermatologic: Burning sensation of skin (10% to 11%), erythema of skin (7% to 16%), exfoliation of skin (7% to 11%), local dryness of skin (1% to 23%), oily skin (1% to 18%), pruritus (7% to 11%)

1% to 10%:

Local: Application site burning (6%), application site pruritus (1%)

Nervous system: Headache (3%)

Intravaginal:

>10%: Genitourinary: Vaginitis (4% to 11%; including vaginal discharge, vaginal infection), vulvovaginal candidiasis (2% to 14%)

1% to 10%:

Gastrointestinal: Constipation (2%)

Genitourinary: Trichomonal vaginitis (1%), urinary tract infection (2%), vaginal pain (2%), vulvovaginal disease (3% to 5%; including localized erythema, localized swelling, vaginal discomfort, vaginal dryness, vaginal irritation, vulvitis, vulvovaginal bleeding, vulvovaginal burning, vulvovaginal pruritus), vulvovaginitis (4% to 6%)

Infection: Candidiasis (≤3%), fungal infection (1%)

Nervous system: Headache (7%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Back pain (5%)

<1%:

Dermatologic: Erythema of skin, maculopapular rash, pruritic rash, pruritus, skin rash, urticaria

Endocrine & metabolic: Hyperthyroidism, intermenstrual bleeding, menstrual disease

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysgeusia, dyspepsia, flatulence, halitosis, nausea, vomiting

Genitourinary: Dysmenorrhea, dysuria, endometriosis, pelvic pain, uterine hemorrhage

Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reaction

Infection: Bacterial infection

Local: Application site pain, application-site pruritus, localized edema

Nervous system: Dizziness, fatigue, flank pain, pain, vertigo

Renal: Pyelonephritis

Respiratory: Epistaxis

Miscellaneous: Fever, swelling (with inflammation)

Postmarking (all products):

Dermatologic: Contact dermatitis, folliculitis (gram-negative infection), seborrhea, skin irritation, skin pain

Gastrointestinal: Bloody diarrhea, Clostridioides difficile colitis, colitis, hematochezia

Local: Application site erythema, application site rash, local swelling

Ophthalmic: Eye pain

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to clindamycin, lincomycin, or any component of the formulation; history of antibiotic-associated colitis, regional enteritis, ulcerative colitis.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Colitis: Use may result in fungal or bacterial superinfection, including Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD); CDAD has been observed >2 months postantibiotic treatment. Discontinue drug if significant diarrhea, abdominal cramps, or passage of blood and mucus occurs.

• Superinfection: The use of clindamycin may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, particularly yeasts, in the vagina. Treatment-related moniliasis and vaginitis have been reported.

Special populations:

• Atopic patients: Use with caution in atopic patients.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Benzyl alcohol and derivatives: Some dosage forms may contain benzyl alcohol; large amounts of benzyl alcohol (≥99 mg/kg/day) have been associated with a potentially fatal toxicity (“gasping syndrome”) in neonates; the “gasping syndrome” consists of metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, gasping respirations, CNS dysfunction (including convulsions, intracranial hemorrhage), hypotension and cardiovascular collapse (AAP ["Inactive" 1997]; CDC 1982); some data suggests that benzoate displaces bilirubin from protein binding sites (Ahlfors 2001); avoid or use dosage forms containing benzyl alcohol with caution in neonates. See manufacturer’s labeling.

• Topical foam: Topical foam may cause irritation especially when used with abrasive, desquamating or peeling agents; avoid contact with eyes, mouth, lips, mucous membranes, or broken skin.

• Topical pledget or solution: Topical pledget and topical solution contain an alcohol base and may cause eye irritation or burning. Rinse with cool tap water if product comes in contact with mucous membranes, abraded skin, or eyes. Use caution when applying near mouth (unpleasant taste).

• Vaginal products: May weaken condoms, or contraceptive diaphragms; barrier contraceptives are not recommended concurrently or for 3 to 5 days (depending on the product) following treatment. Avoid vaginal intercourse or use of other vaginal products (eg, douches, tampons) during therapy. Vaginal cream contains ingredients that may cause eye burning and irritation; rinse with cool tap water if product comes in contact with the eyes.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Acne: American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) acne guidelines recommend clindamycin (topical) be used in conjunction with other therapies (not as monotherapy) due to the risk of bacterial resistance. If given for mild acne, clindamycin (topical) should be used in combination with benzoyl peroxide. If given for moderate to severe acne, it should be used in combination with a topical retinoid or systemic antibiotic agent (AAD [Zaenglein 2016]).

Warnings: Additional Pediatric Considerations

Some dosage forms may contain propylene glycol; in neonates large amounts of propylene glycol delivered orally, intravenously (eg, >3,000 mg/day), or topically have been associated with potentially fatal toxicities which can include metabolic acidosis, seizures, renal failure, and CNS depression; toxicities have also been reported in children and adults including hyperosmolality, lactic acidosis, seizures and respiratory depression; use caution (AAP 1997; Shehab 2009).

Metabolism/Transport Effects

None known.

Drug Interactions

Erythromycin (Systemic): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Clindamycin (Topical). Management: Consider avoiding the concomitant use of systemic erythromycin and topical clindamycin when treating acne vulgaris. This recommendation does not appear to apply to intravaginal use of clindamycin for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Erythromycin (Topical): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Clindamycin (Topical). Management: Consider avoiding use of topical erythromycin and topical clindamycin at the same application site when treating acne vulgaris. This recommendation does not appear to apply to intravaginal use of clindamycin for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents: Clindamycin (Topical) may enhance the neuromuscular-blocking effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Reproductive Considerations

Some vaginal products contain mineral oil which may weaken condoms or contraceptive diaphragms. Therefore, use of these products are not recommended for birth control during therapy or for 3 to 5 days (depending on the product) following treatment.

Pregnancy Considerations

Clindamycin crosses the placenta following oral and parenteral dosing (Philipson 1973; Weinstein 1976). The amount of clindamycin available systemically is less following topical and vaginal application than with IV or oral administration.

Various clindamycin vaginal products are available for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Recommendations for use in pregnant woman vary by product labeling. Current guidelines note that the same oral or vaginal regimens used in nonpregnant patients may be used during pregnancy, including oral or vaginal clindamycin (CDC [Workowski 2021]).

If treatment for acne is needed during pregnancy, topical clindamycin may be considered if an antibiotic is needed. To decrease systemic exposure, pregnant women should avoid application to inflamed skin for long periods of time, or to large body surface areas (Kong 2013).

Monitoring Parameters

Observe for changes in bowel frequency.

Mechanism of Action

Reversibly binds to 50S ribosomal subunits preventing peptide bond formation thus inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis; bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on drug concentration, infection site, and organism

Pharmacokinetics (Adult data unless noted)

Absorption: Topical solution or foam, phosphate: Minimal; Vaginal cream, phosphate: ~5%; Vaginal suppository, phosphate: ~30%

Metabolism: Hepatic; forms metabolites (variable activity); Clindamycin phosphate is converted to clindamycin HCl (active)

Half-life elimination: Vaginal cream: 1.5 to 2.6 hours following repeated dosing; Vaginal suppository: 11 hours (range: 4 to 35 hours, limited by absorption rate)

Time to peak, serum: Vaginal cream: ~10 to 14 hours (range: 4 to 24 hours); Vaginal suppository: ~5 hours (range: 1 to 10 hours)

Excretion: Urine (<0.2% with topical foam and solution)

Pricing: US

Cream (Cleocin Vaginal)

2% (per gram): $6.03

Cream (Clindamycin Phosphate Vaginal)

2% (per gram): $2.72 - $3.26

Cream (Clindesse Vaginal)

2% (per gram): $30.40

Foam (Clindamycin Phosphate External)

1% (per gram): $6.93

Foam (Evoclin External)

1% (per gram): $11.44

Gel (Clindagel External)

1% (per mL): $28.44

Gel (Clindamycin Phosphate External)

1% (per gram): $1.80 - $3.46

Kit (Clindacin ETZ External)

1% (per each): $774.68

Kit (Clindacin Pac External)

1% (per each): $774.70

Lotion (Cleocin-T External)

1% (per mL): $2.34

Lotion (Clindamycin Phosphate External)

1% (per mL): $1.92 - $2.40

Solution (Clindamycin Phosphate External)

1% (per mL): $0.33 - $1.36

Suppository (Cleocin Vaginal)

100 mg (per each): $73.50

Swab (Clindacin ETZ External)

1% (per each): $12.91

Swab (Clindacin-P External)

1% (per each): $11.23

Swab (Clindamycin Phosphate External)

1% (per each): $0.84

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Brand Names: International
  • Acnegon (LK);
  • Albiotin Acne (LK);
  • Aledo Gel (TW);
  • Avocin (KW, QA, SA);
  • Butamycin-N (GR);
  • Clearex (SY);
  • Cleocin T (KR, TW);
  • Cleocin-T (BB);
  • Clicia Solution (KR);
  • Clidacor Gel (ID);
  • Clidan (UY);
  • Clidets Gel (MX);
  • Clinacin-T (EG);
  • Clinagel (BR);
  • Clindac-A (IN);
  • Clindacin (AR, BD, RU);
  • Clindacin T (AE);
  • Clindagel (GR);
  • Clindamycin-T (SA);
  • Clindasol (EG, SA);
  • ClindaTech (PH);
  • Clindax Lotion (BD);
  • Clinderm (PH);
  • Clinex (BD);
  • Cliniderm (LB);
  • Clinika (ID);
  • Clinimycin (KW, QA);
  • Clinimycin T (LB);
  • Clinimycin-T (SA);
  • Clinocid (EG);
  • Clintopic (UY);
  • Clinwas (ES);
  • Cutaclin (CR, DO, GT, HN, MX, NI, PA, PE, SV);
  • Daclin (BD);
  • Dalacin (BE, DK, ES, FI, HU, IS, LU, NO, SI);
  • Dalacin al 1% (VE);
  • Dalacin C Lotion (TR);
  • Dalacin Lotion (AT);
  • Dalacin Solution (AT);
  • Dalacin T (AE, AU, BG, BH, BR, CH, CL, CN, CO, CZ, DK, EE, EG, GB, HK, IE, IT, JO, KW, LV, MT, MX, MY, NL, PE, PK, PL, PT, QA, SA, SG, SK, TH, UA, ZA, ZW);
  • Dalacin T Gel (CR, DO, HN, NI, PA, SV);
  • Dalacine (FR);
  • Dalacine T (FR);
  • Dalagis Foam (IL);
  • Derma T (KW, QA);
  • Derma-T (AE, SA);
  • Dermabel (CL);
  • Duoclin (KR);
  • Edason Cutaneous (MT);
  • Glencin T (AE);
  • Keshuzhi Gel (TW);
  • Klinna (TH);
  • Kolincin (HK);
  • Libido Gel (TW);
  • Lindamax (BD);
  • Medacin T (LB);
  • Mediacin T (AE);
  • Mediklin (ID);
  • Rosil (TH);
  • T3 Mycin Gel (VN);
  • T3-Mycin (ET);
  • T3Mycin (HK, PH, SG);
  • Tidact Gel (MY);
  • Tococlean Gel (TW);
  • Topicil (SG);
  • Zindaclin (BE, CZ, ES, GB, HK, IE, IL, LB, MY, PL, PT, TR);
  • Zindacline (FR)


For country abbreviations used in Lexicomp (show table)
  1. Ahlfors CE. Benzyl alcohol, kernicterus, and unbound bilirubin. J Pediatr. 2001;139(2):317-319. [PubMed 11487763]
  2. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SA, eds. Red Book: 2015 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 30th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2015.
  3. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Neonatal deaths associated with use of benzyl alcohol—United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982;31(22):290-291. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001109.htm [PubMed 6810084]
  4. Clemmensen OJ. Topical treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa with clindamycin. Int J Dermatol. 1983;22(5):325-328. [PubMed 6347922]
  5. Cleocin T topical gel, lotion, and solution (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Pharmacia & Upjohn Co; December 2019.
  6. Cleocin T topical solution (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Pharmacia & Upjohn; November 2017.
  7. Cleocin vaginal cream (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Pharmacia & Upjohn; March 2020.
  8. Cleocin vaginal cream (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Pharmacia & Upjohn; August 2021.
  9. Cleocin vaginal suppository (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Pharmacia & Upjohn; March 2020.
  10. Cleocin vaginal suppository (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Pharmacia & Upjohn; August 2021.
  11. Clindagel (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. Bridgewater, NJ: Bausch Health US LLC; January 2020.
  12. Clindamycin Phosphate (topical) [prescribing information]. Durham, NC: Encube Ethicals, Inc; January 2020.
  13. Clindesse vaginal cream (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. Allegan, MI: Perrigo; November 2014.
  14. Clindesse vaginal cream (clindamycin) [prescribing information]. Allegan, MI: Perrigo; February 2021.
  15. Clindets pledgets (clindamycin solution) [product monograph]. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: GlaxoSmithKline Inc; October 2016.
  16. Eichenfield LF, Krakowski AC, Piggott C, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric acne. Pediatrics. 2013;131 Suppl 3:S163-186. [PubMed 23637225]
  17. Evlocin (clindamycin foam) [prescribing information]. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals; April 2018.
  18. Faro S, Skokos CK; Clindesse Investigators Group. The efficacy and safety of a single dose of Clindesse vaginal cream versus a seven-dose regimen of Cleocin vaginal cream in patients with bacterial vaginosis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2005;13(3):155-160. doi:10.1080/10647440500148321 [PubMed 16240515]
  19. "Inactive" ingredients in pharmaceutical products: update (subject review). American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Drugs. Pediatrics. 1997;99(2):268-278. [PubMed 9024461]
  20. Jemec GB. Clinical practice. Hidradenitis suppurativa. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(2):158-164. [PubMed 22236226]
  21. Kong YL, Tey HL. Treatment of acne vulgaris during pregnancy and lactation. Drugs. 2013;73(8):779-787. [PubMed 23657872]
  22. Philipson A, Sabath LD, and Charles D, "Transplacental Passage of Erythromycin and Clindamycin," N Engl J Med, 1973, 288(23):1219-21. [PubMed 4700555]
  23. Shehab N, Lewis CL, Streetman DD, Donn SM. Exposure to the pharmaceutical excipients benzyl alcohol and propylene glycol among critically ill neonates. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10(2):256-259. [PubMed 19188870]
  24. Weinstein AJ, Gibbs RS, and Gallagher M, "Placental Transfer of Clindamycin and Gentamicin in Term Pregnancy," Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1976, 124(7):688-91. [PubMed 943947]
  25. Wilkin JK, DeWitt S. Treatment of rosacea: topical clindamycin versus oral tetracycline. Int J Dermatol. 1993;32(1):65-67. [PubMed 8425809]
  26. Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually transmitted infections treatment guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021;70(4):1-187. doi:10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1 [PubMed 34292926]
  27. Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(RR-03):1-137.
  28. World Health Organization (WHO). Breastfeeding and maternal medication, recommendations for drugs in the Eleventh WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. 2002. Available at http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/55732/en/
  29. Zaenglein AL, Pathy AL, Schlosser BJ, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of acne vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74(5):945-973.e33. http://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(15)02614-6/pdf. Accessed June 13, 2016. [PubMed 26897386]
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