Return To The Previous Page
Buy a Package
Number Of Visible Items Remaining : 3 Item

Primaquine: Pediatric drug information

Primaquine: Pediatric drug information
(For additional information see "Primaquine: Drug information" and see "Primaquine: Patient drug information")

For abbreviations, symbols, and age group definitions used in Lexicomp (show table)
Therapeutic Category
  • Antimalarial Agent
Dosing: Pediatric

Note: Screen for G6PD deficiency prior to initiating treatment (Ref). Dosage expressed as mg of base (15 mg base = 26.3 mg primaquine phosphate):

Malaria, uncomplicated; relapse prevention

Malaria, uncomplicated; relapse prevention (radical cure) ( P. vivax or P. ovale) : Limited data available:

Patients without G6PD-deficiency:

14-Day Regimen:

Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Note: Guideline-recommended regimen (Ref):

<70 kg: Oral: 0.5 mg base/kg/dose once daily for 14 days; maximum dose: 30 mg base/dose; must be used in combination with appropriate acute antimalarial treatment; consult guidelines to determine the appropriate agent (Ref).

≥70 kg: Oral: 30 mg base/day once daily to complete a total course of 6 mg base/kg (duration is the number of days it takes to complete total dose of 6 mg base/kg divided into 30 mg doses); must be used in combination with appropriate acute antimalarial treatment; consult guidelines to determine the appropriate agent (Ref).

7-Day Regimen: Note: This regimen has only been studied in patients with P. vivax.

Infants ≥6 months weighing ≥5 kg, Children, and Adolescents: Limited data available: Oral: 1 mg base/kg daily for 7 days; dosing based on 2 randomized noninferiority trials in which primaquine was given concomitantly with chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. vivax monoinfection; primaquine was administered for either 7 days at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day or at the same total dose divided over 14 days; malaria recurrence was similar between groups and gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in patients who received the 7-day regimen (Ref).

Patients with G6PD-deficiency:

Note: Recommended for patients with mild to moderate or intermediate G6PD deficiency; if patient has more severe G6PD deficiency or is not expected to tolerate primaquine, see guidelines for treatment options (Ref). Must be used in combination with appropriate acute antimalarial treatment; consult guidelines to determine the appropriate agents (Ref).

Infants ≥6 months, Children, and Adolescents: Limited data available: Oral: 0.75 mg base/kg/dose once weekly for 8 weeks under close medical supervision and monitoring for hemolysis; maximum dose: 45 mg base/dose (Ref).

Malaria, prophylaxis

Malaria, prophylaxis: Limited data available:

Primary prophylaxis for short-duration travel (<6 months) for travelers going to areas with primarily P. vivax: Infants, Children, and Adolescents (independent of HIV status): Oral: 0.5 mg base/kg/dose once daily; maximum dose: 30 mg base/dose; initiate 1 to 2 days prior to travel, and continue while in the area with malaria risk and for 7 days after departure(Ref).

Terminal prophylaxis (presumptive antirelapse therapy [PART]): Infants, Children, and Adolescents (independent of HIV status): Oral: 0.5 mg base/kg/dose once daily for 14 days after departure from malaria-endemic area; maximum dose: 30 mg base/dose (Ref).

Malaria, reduction in transmissibility in low transmission endemic areas

Malaria, reduction in transmissibility in low transmission endemic areas (P. falciparum): Limited data available:

Infants ≥6 months, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: 0.25 mg base/kg as a single dose on the first day of malaria treatment, in addition to recommended malaria therapy (Ref). Note: G6PD testing is not required for single dose.

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, treatment

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), treatment (alternative) (HIV-exposed/-infected patients): Limited data available:

Infants and Children (doses extrapolated from use in other indications): Mild to moderate disease: Oral: 0.3 mg base/kg/dose once daily for 21 days in combination with clindamycin; maximum dose: 30 mg base/dose (Ref).

Adolescents: Oral: 30 mg base once daily for 21 days in combination with clindamycin (Ref).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Dosing: Adult

(For additional information see "Primaquine: Drug information")

Note: Screen for G6PD deficiency prior to initiating treatment. Dosage expressed as mg of base (15 mg base = 26.3 mg primaquine phosphate).

Malaria

Malaria:

Treatment, P. vivax or P. ovale malaria: Oral: 30 mg once daily for 14 days in combination with another appropriate antimalarial agent; in patients weighing ≥70 kg, adjust to a total dose of 6 mg/kg, administered in daily doses of 30 mg once daily for the number of days required to complete the total calculated dose. For patients with intermediate G6PD activity, may consider 45 mg once weekly for 8 weeks, with close monitoring for hemolysis (use only after consultation with an infectious disease/tropical medicine expert) (Ref).

Prophylaxis (primary) (off-label use): Oral: 30 mg once daily; start 1 to 2 days prior to travel and continue while in the malaria-endemic area and for 7 days after departure from the area (Ref).

Presumptive anti-relapse therapy (terminal prophylaxis) for P. vivax and P. ovale malaria (off-label use):

Temperate strains: Oral: 0.25 mg/kg once daily for 14 days after departure from malaria-endemic area. Total recommended dose: 3.5 mg/kg given over 14 days (Ref).

Tropical, frequent-relapsing P. vivax: Oral: 0.5 mg/kg (maximum daily dose: 30 mg) once daily for 14 days after departure from malaria-endemic area. Total recommended dose: 7 mg/kg given over 14 days; in patients ≥70 kg, extend treatment duration to achieve total recommended dose without exceeding the maximum daily dose (Ref).

Pneumocystis pneumonia, treatment

Pneumocystis pneumonia, treatment (alternative agent) (off-label use): Oral: 30 mg once daily in combination with clindamycin for 21 days (Ref).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral, as phosphate:

Generic: 26.3 mg (equivalent to primaquine base 15 mg)

Generic Equivalent Available: US

Yes

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral, as phosphate:

Generic: 26.3 mg (equivalent to primaquine base 15 mg)

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: Administer with meals to decrease adverse GI effects (Ref). Tablet may be crushed and mixed with a small amount of applesauce, chocolate syrup, or jelly (Ref).

Administration: Adult

Oral: Administer with food to decrease adverse GI effects (Ref).

Storage/Stability

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from light.

Use

For the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of vivax malaria (Plasmodium vivax) (FDA approved in adults); has also been used for radical cure (relapse prevention) of Plasmodium ovale, prevention of malaria (in areas with primarily P. vivax), reduction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in low-transmission endemic areas, and treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

Medication Safety Issues
Sound-alike/look-alike issues:

Primaquine may be confused with primidone

High alert medication:

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) includes this medication among its list of drugs that have a heightened risk of causing significant patient harm when used in error.

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified. Frequency not defined.

Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrhythmia, dizziness, prolonged QT interval on ECG

Dermatologic: Pruritus, skin rash

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal cramps, epigastric distress, nausea, vomiting

Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia, hemolytic anemia (in patients with G6PD deficiency), leukopenia, methemoglobinemia (in NADH-methemoglobin reductase-deficient individuals)

Contraindications

Severe G6PD deficiency; pregnancy; use in acutely ill patients with a systemic illness manifested by tendency to develop granulocytopenia (eg, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus); concurrent use with other medications causing hemolytic anemia or myeloid bone marrow suppression; concurrent use of quinacrine.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to primaquine or any component of the formulation.

Documentation of allergenic cross-reactivity for aminoquinolines is limited. However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be ruled out with certainty.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Cardiovascular effects: May cause QT prolongation; monitor ECG in patients with cardiac disease, long QT syndrome, a history of ventricular arrhythmias, uncorrected hypokalemia and/or hypomagnesemia, or bradycardia (<50 beats per minute), and during concomitant administration with QT interval prolonging agents.

• Hematologic effects: Anemia, methemoglobinemia, and leukopenia have been associated with primaquine use; monitor during treatment; do not exceed recommended dosage and duration. Closely monitor patients who have a family or personal history of hemolytic anemia or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) methemoglobin reductase deficiency, or who have had a prior hematologic adverse reaction attributed to primaquine. Immediately discontinue if marked darkening of the urine or sudden decrease in hemoglobin concentration or leukocyte count occurs.

Disease-related concerns:

• G6PD deficiency: Moderate to severe hemolytic reactions may occur in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and personal or familial history of favism. Geographic regions with a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency (eg, Africa, southern Europe, Mediterranean region, Middle East, southeast Asia, Oceania) are associated with a higher incidence of hemolytic anemia. Screen for G6PD deficiency prior to therapy initiation. Use is contraindicated in patients with severe G6PD deficiency. Assess benefits/risks of treatment when considering use in patients with mild to moderate G6PD deficiency or those patients whose G6PD status is unknown and testing is not available. Also assess risk factors for G6PD deficiency or favism in patients with unknown G6PD status. If a decision is made to administer primaquine to a patient with mild to moderate G6PD deficiency or unknown G6PD status (when testing is not available), perform baseline hematocrit and hemoglobin testing and closely monitor hematological parameters (eg, at day 3 and 8). Immediately discontinue treatment if signs of hemolytic anemia occur.

• Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide methemoglobin reductase deficiency: Use with caution in patients with a personal or family history of NADH methemoglobin reductase deficiency; methemoglobinemia may occur.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Polysorbate 80: Some dosage forms may contain polysorbate 80 (also known as Tweens). Hypersensitivity reactions, usually a delayed reaction, have been reported following exposure to pharmaceutical products containing polysorbate 80 in certain individuals (Isaksson 2002; Lucente 2000; Shelley 1995). Thrombocytopenia, ascites, pulmonary deterioration, and renal and hepatic failure have been reported in premature neonates after receiving parenteral products containing polysorbate 80 (Alade 1986; CDC 1984). See manufacturer's labeling.

Metabolism/Transport Effects

Substrate of CYP2D6 (minor), CYP3A4 (minor); Note: Assignment of Major/Minor substrate status based on clinically relevant drug interaction potential

Drug Interactions

Note: Interacting drugs may not be individually listed below if they are part of a group interaction (eg, individual drugs within “CYP3A4 Inducers [Strong]” are NOT listed). For a complete list of drug interactions by individual drug name and detailed management recommendations, use the Lexicomp drug interactions program by clicking on the “Launch drug interactions program” link above.

Artemether and Lumefantrine: Antimalarial Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Artemether and Lumefantrine. Management: Artemether/lumefantrine (combination product) should not be used with other antimalarials unless there is no other treatment option. If combined, monitor patients for increased toxicities of both agents, including QTc interval prolongation. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Artesunate: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Primaquine. Artesunate may increase the serum concentration of Primaquine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Chloroquine: May increase the serum concentration of Primaquine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

ChlorproMAZINE: Antimalarial Agents may increase the serum concentration of ChlorproMAZINE. Risk C: Monitor therapy

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Primaquine. CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Primaquine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Dapsone (Systemic): Antimalarial Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dapsone (Systemic). Specifically, concomitant use of antimalarial agents with dapsone may increase the risk of hemolytic reactions. Dapsone (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antimalarial Agents. Specifically, concomitant use of dapsone with antimalarial agents may increase the risk for hemolytic reactions. Management: Closely monitor patients for signs/symptoms of hemolytic reactions with concomitant use of dapsone and antimalarial agents, particularly in patients deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), methemoglobin reductase, or with hemoglobin M. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Dapsone (Topical): Antimalarial Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dapsone (Topical). Specifically, the risk of hemolytic reactions may be increased. Management: Consider avoidance of this combination when possible. If combined, closely monitor for signs/symptoms of hemolytic reactions. Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency may be at particularly high risk for adverse hematologic effects. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Haloperidol: QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Caution) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Haloperidol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Local Anesthetics: Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Local Anesthetics. Specifically, the risk for methemoglobinemia may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mefloquine: Aminoquinolines (Antimalarial) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mefloquine. Specifically, the risk for QTc-prolongation and the risk for convulsions may be increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use, and delay administration of mefloquine until at least 12 hours after the last dose of an aminoquinoline antimalarial. Risk X: Avoid combination

Nitric Oxide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Prilocaine: Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Prilocaine. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia. Management: Monitor patients for signs of methemoglobinemia (e.g., hypoxia, cyanosis) when prilocaine is used in combination with other agents associated with development of methemoglobinemia. Avoid lidocaine/prilocaine in infants receiving such agents. Risk C: Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk): QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Caution) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Quinacrine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Primaquine. Risk X: Avoid combination

Rabies Vaccine: Aminoquinolines (Antimalarial) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Rabies Vaccine. Management: If coadministration is unavoidable during rabies post-exposure vaccination, give a 5th dose of the rabies vaccine. If coadministration is unavoidable during rabies pre-exposure vaccination, ensure antibody titers are greater than or equal to 0.5 IU/mL. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sodium Nitrite: Methemoglobinemia Associated Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sodium Nitrite. Combinations of these agents may increase the likelihood of significant methemoglobinemia. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Reproductive Considerations

Pregnancy testing is recommended prior to use in patients who may become pregnant. Patients who could become pregnant should use effective contraception during therapy and until the next menses following discontinuation of treatment. Patients with partners who could become pregnant should use condoms during therapy and for 3 months after treatment is discontinued.

Pregnancy Considerations

Primaquine is contraindicated during pregnancy.

Malaria infection in pregnant patients may be more severe than in nonpregnant patients and has a high risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Malaria infection during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, premature delivery, low birth weight, congenital infection, and/or perinatal death. Therefore, pregnant persons and persons who are likely to become pregnant are advised to avoid travel to malaria-risk areas. When travel is unavoidable, pregnant persons should take precautions to avoid mosquito bites and use effective prophylactic medications (CDC 2022; CDC Yellow Book 2020).

Because primaquine may cause acute hemolytic anemia in a fetus with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, use is contraindicated in pregnancy. When treatment is needed, other agents are preferred (CDC 2022; CDC Yellow Book 2020). Consult current CDC guidelines for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy.

Monitoring Parameters

Screen for G6PD deficiency prior to initiating treatment (CDC 2019). Pregnancy test prior to therapy in sexually-active females. CBC (baseline and periodic), visual color check of urine (periodic), glucose; ECG (in patients at risk for QT prolongation). If hemolysis is suspected, monitor CBC, haptoglobin, reticulocyte count, peripheral smear, liver function tests (Frank 2005).

Mechanism of Action

Primaquine is an antiprotozoal agent active against exoerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium ovale and P. vivax, also active against the primary exoerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and gametocytes of Plasmodia; disrupts mitochondria and binds to DNA

Pharmacokinetics (Adult Data Unless Noted)

Absorption: Well absorbed

Metabolism: Hepatic to carboxyprimaquine (active) via CYP1A2

Half-life elimination: 7 hours; reported range: 3.7 to 9.6 hours

Time to peak, serum: 1 to 3 hours

Excretion: Urine (small amounts as unchanged drug)

Extemporaneous Preparations

6 mg base/5 mL Oral Suspension

A 6 mg base/5 mL oral suspension may be made using tablets. Crush ten 15 mg base tablets and reduce to a fine powder. In small amounts, add a total of 10 mL Carboxymethylcellulose 1.5% and mix to a uniform paste; mix while adding Simple Syrup, NF to almost 125 mL; transfer to a calibrated bottle, rinse mortar with vehicle, and add quantity of vehicle sufficient to make 125 mL. Label "shake well" and "refrigerate". Stable 7 days.

Nahata MC, Pai VB, and Hipple TF, Pediatric Drug Formulations, 5th ed, Cincinnati, OH: Harvey Whitney Books Co, 2004.
Pricing: US

Tablets (Primaquine Phosphate Oral)

26.3 (15 Base) mg (per each): $1.80 - $2.46

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Brand Names: International
  • Jasoprim (BD);
  • Kanoprim (BD);
  • Malafree (KR);
  • Malirid (IN);
  • PMQ-INGA (IN);
  • Pquin (BD);
  • Primacin (AU);
  • Primacip (IN);
  • Remaquin (BD)


For country code abbreviations (show table)
  1. Alade SL, Brown RE, Paquet A Jr. Polysorbate 80 and E-Ferol toxicity. Pediatrics. 1986;77(4):593-597. [PubMed 3960626]
  2. Anderson PO, Sauberan JB. Modeling drug passage into human milk. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016;100(1):42-52. doi: 10.1002/cpt.377. [PubMed 27060684]
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press; 2014; Chapter 3. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/yellowbook-home-2014
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC Yellow Book 2020: Health Information for International Travel. Oxford University Press; 2019. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/yellowbook-home-2020.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines for treatment of malaria in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/resources/pdf/Malaria_Treatment_Table_120419.pdf. Updated December 4, 2019a.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly carinii) Pneumonia (PCP). http://dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Pneumocystis.htm. Accessed May 15, 2013.
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Malaria treatment (United States). https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/diagnosis_treatment/treatment.html. Updated September 30, 2022. Accessed October 19, 2022.
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Treatment of malaria: guidelines for clinicians (United States). https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/diagnosis_treatment/clinicians1.html. Accessed December 11, 2019b.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Unusual syndrome with fatalities among premature infants: association with a new intravenous vitamin E product. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1984;33(14):198-199. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00000319.htm. [PubMed 6423951]
  10. Chamma-Siqueira NN, Negreiros SC, Ballard SB, et al. Higher-dose primaquine to prevent relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(13):1244-1253. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2104226 [PubMed 35353962]
  11. Chu CS, Phyo AP, Turner C, et al. Chloroquine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine with standard high-dose primaquine given either for 7 days or 14 days in plasmodium vivax malaria. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(8):1311-1319. [PubMed 30952158]
  12. Fishman JA, Gans H; AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Pneumocystis jiroveci in solid organ transplantation: guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Clin Transplant. 2019;33(9):e13587. doi:10.1111/ctr.13587 [PubMed 31077616]
  13. Frank JE. Diagnosis and management of G6PD deficiency. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(7):1277-1282. [PubMed 16225031]
  14. Gilder ME, Hanpithakphong W, Hoglund RM, et al. Primaquine pharmacokinetics in lactating women and breastfed infant exposures. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;67(7):1000-1007. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy235. [PubMed 29590311]
  15. Isaksson M, Jansson L. Contact allergy to Tween 80 in an inhalation suspension. Contact Dermatitis. 2002;47(5):312-313. [PubMed 12534540]
  16. Ito S. Drug therapy for breast-feeding women. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(2):118-126. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200007133430208. [PubMed 10891521]
  17. Lucente P, Iorizzo M, Pazzaglia M. Contact sensitivity to Tween 80 in a child. Contact Dermatitis. 2000;43(3):172. [PubMed 10985636]
  18. Lynk A and Gold R, “Review of 40 Children With Imported Malaria,” Pediatr Infect Dis J, 1989, 8(11):745-50. [PubMed 2594448]
  19. Maschmeyer G, Helweg-Larsen J, Pagano L, Robin C, Cordonnier C, Schellongowski P; 6th European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-6), a joint venture of The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the International Immunocompromised Host Society (ICHS) and The European LeukemiaNet (ELN). ECIL guidelines for treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected haematology patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71(9):2405-2413. doi:10.1093/jac/dkw158 [PubMed 27550993]
  20. Panisko DM and Keystone JS, “Treatment of Malaria - 1990,” Drugs, 1990, 39(2):160-89. [PubMed 2183998]
  21. Primaquine phosphate [prescribing information]. Bridgewater, NJ: Sanofi-Aventis; June 2017.
  22. Primaquine phosphate [prescribing information]. Short Hills, NJ: Bayshore Pharmaceuticals LLC; November 2017.
  23. Primaquine [product monograph]. Laval, Quebec, Canada: sanofi-aventis Canada Inc; March 2017.
  24. Shelley WB, Talanin N, Shelley ED. Polysorbate 80 hypersensitivity. Lancet. 1995;345(8980):1312-1313. [PubMed 7746084]
  25. Taylor WR, Thriemer K, von Seidlein L, et al. Short-course primaquine for the radical cure of plasmodium vivax malaria: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2019;394(10202):929-938. [PubMed 31327563]
  26. US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Panel on Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV. https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/en/guidelines/adult-and-adolescent-opportunistic-infection/whats-new-guidelines. Updated January 12, 2022. Accessed May 31, 2022.
  27. US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/oi_guidelines_pediatrics.pdf.Updated December 9, 2019. Accessed January 22, 2020.
  28. US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Panel on Adult and Adolescent Opportunistic Infection. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/adult_oi.pdf. Updated January 10, 2020. Accessed March 20, 2020.
  29. White NJ, “The Treatment of Malaria,” N Engl J Med, 1996, 335(11):800-6. [PubMed 8703186]
  30. World Health Organization (WHO). Breastfeeding and maternal medication, recommendations for drugs in the eleventh WHO model list of essential drugs. 2002. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/62435.
  31. World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for Malaria. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; June 3, 2022. https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1427681/retrieve. Accessed October 19, 2022.
  32. World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. 3rd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; April 2015. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/162441/9789241549127_eng.pdf;jsessionid=5E6B69DD1F9A124C2DFEA30D5F8D6E8E?sequence=1. Accessed August 15, 2019.
  33. Wyler DJ, “Malaria Chemoprophylaxis for the Traveler,” N Engl J Med, 1993, 329(1):31-7. [PubMed 8505942]
Topic 12726 Version 253.0

Do you want to add Medilib to your home screen?