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Levothyroxine: Pediatric drug information

Levothyroxine: Pediatric drug information
(For additional information see "Levothyroxine: Drug information" and see "Levothyroxine: Patient drug information")

For abbreviations, symbols, and age group definitions used in Lexicomp (show table)
ALERT: US Boxed Warning
Weight reduction:

Thyroid hormones, including levothyroxine, either alone or with other therapeutic agents, should not be used for the treatment of obesity or for weight loss. In euthyroid patients, doses within the range of daily hormonal requirements are ineffective for weight reduction. Larger doses may produce serious or even life-threatening manifestations of toxicity, particularly when given in association with sympathomimetic amines, such as those used for their anorectic effects.

Brand Names: US
  • Ermeza;
  • Euthyrox;
  • Levoxyl;
  • Synthroid;
  • Thyquidity;
  • Tirosint;
  • Tirosint-SOL;
  • Unithroid
Brand Names: Canada
  • Eltroxin;
  • Euthyrox [DSC];
  • Synthroid
Therapeutic Category
  • Thyroid Product
Dosing: Neonatal

Dosage guidance:

Safety: Oral solution is available in multiple concentrations; dosing should be presented in mcg of levothyroxine; use extra precaution when verifying product formulation and calculation of dose volumes.

Congenital hypothyroidism

Congenital hypothyroidism:

Oral: Note: Doses should be adjusted based on clinical response and laboratory parameters. Only commercially available oral liquids or crushed tablets (mixed with breast milk, non–soy-based formula, or water) should be used; experts recommend against the use of extemporaneously prepared solutions/suspension. Additionally, brand name products are preferred over generic tablets for treating congenital hypothyroidism. Oral solution may have higher bioavailability compared to tablets; neonates and infants receiving commercially available oral liquids may need more frequent monitoring (Ref).

Neonates: Oral: 10 to 15 mcg/kg/dose once daily; in most term neonates, initial doses of 37.5 to 50 mcg/day are used; titrate as rapidly as possible (<2 weeks after initiation of therapy) to achieve target serum T4 concentration (>10 mcg/dL). In severe cases of hypothyroidism (serum T4 <5 mcg/dL), initiating at higher doses (12 to 17 mcg/kg/dose) may be necessary. If patient is at risk for development of or has preexisting cardiac failure, initiating therapy with lower dose (ie, 50% of dose) has been recommended (Ref).

IV: Note: The relative bioavailability of injectable and oral levothyroxine has not been established; use caution when switching patients from oral to IV as accurate dosing conversions have not been established. IV dose of ~75% to 80% of the oral dose has been suggested by guidelines (Ref).

Neonates: IV: Initial: ~75% to 80% of the oral dose (Ref).

Deceased organ donor management

Deceased organ donor management (hormonal resuscitation for the deceased organ donor):

Neonates: IV: Initial: 5 mcg/kg bolus dose, followed by 1.4 mcg/kg/hour infusion (Ref).

Dosing: Pediatric

Dosage guidance:

Safety: Oral solution is available in multiple concentrations; dosing should be presented in mcg of levothyroxine; use extra precaution when verifying product formulation and calculation of dose volumes.

Hypothyroidism, acquired or congenital

Hypothyroidism, acquired or congenital: Note: Hyperactivity in older children may be minimized by starting at one-quarter (25%) of the recommended dose and increasing each week by that amount until the full dose is achieved (4 weeks).

Oral: Note: Doses should be adjusted based on clinical response and laboratory parameters. Brand name tablets are preferred over generic tablets for treating congenital hypothyroidism. Switching between different levothyroxine products and/or formulations may result in variations in the administered dose, alter thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values, and is generally not recommended; if products or formulations are changed, close monitoring of TSH is recommended; patients with congenital hypothyroidism may be more sensitive to changes in formulations. Commercially available oral liquids may have a higher bioavailability than tablets; neonates and infants receiving commercially available oral liquids may need more frequent monitoring. Experts recommend against the use of extemporaneously prepared solutions/suspensions (Ref).

1 to 3 months: Oral: 10 to 15 mcg/kg/dose once daily; in severe cases of congenital hypothyroidism (serum T4 <5 mcg/dL), initiating at higher doses (12 to 17 mcg/kg/dose) may be necessary (Ref).

>3 to 6 months: Oral: 8 to 10 mcg/kg/dose once daily.

>6 to 12 months: Oral: 6 to 8 mcg/kg/dose once daily.

1 to 5 years: Oral: 5 to 6 mcg/kg/dose once daily.

6 to 12 years: Oral: 4 to 5 mcg/kg/dose once daily.

>12 years with incomplete growth and puberty: Oral: 2 to 3 mcg/kg/dose once daily.

Adolescents with growth and puberty complete: Oral: 1.6 mcg/kg/dose once daily; adjust dose by 12.5 to 25 mcg/day every 4 to 6 weeks as needed. Usual doses are ≤200 mcg/day (range: 100 to 125 mcg/day [70 kg adult]); doses ≥300 mcg/day are rare (consider poor compliance, malabsorption, and/or drug interactions).

Cardiac disease: Note: Lower initial doses are recommended.

Infants and Children: Oral: Initial: ~50% of target replacement dose; increase after 2 weeks based on free thyroxine levels (Ref).

Adolescents with growth and puberty complete: Oral: Initial: 12.5 to 25 mcg/day; adjust dose by 12.5 to 25 mcg increments at 6- to 8-week intervals as needed.

IV: Note: The relative bioavailability of injectable and oral levothyroxine has not been established; use caution when switching patients from oral to IV as accurate dosing conversions have not been established.

Infants, Children, and Adolescents: IV: Initial: ~75% to 80% of the oral dose (Ref).

Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression in well differentiated thyroid cancer

Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression in well differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary):

Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: Highly individualized; doses >2 mcg/kg/day may be needed to suppress TSH to <0.1 milliunits/L in high-risk tumors; for intermediate-risk tumors, initial TSH suppression to 0.1 to 0.5 milliunits/L is recommended; for low-risk tumors, TSH may be maintained at 0.5 to 1 milliunits/L (Ref).

Deceased organ donor management

Deceased organ donor management (hormonal resuscitation for the deceased organ donor) (Ref):

Infants <6 months: IV: Initial: 5 mcg/kg bolus dose, followed by 1.4 mcg/kg/hour infusion.

Infants 6 to 12 months: IV: Initial: 4 mcg/kg bolus dose, followed by 1.3 mcg/kg/hour infusion.

Children 1 to 5 years: IV: Initial: 3 mcg/kg bolus dose, followed by 1.2 mcg/kg/hour infusion.

Children 6 to 12 years: IV: Initial: 2.5 mcg/kg bolus dose, followed by 1 mcg/kg/hour infusion.

Children ≥12 years and Adolescents ≤16 years: IV: Initial: 1.5 mcg/kg bolus dose, followed by 0.8 mcg/kg/hour infusion.

Adolescents >16 years: IV: Initial: 0.8 mcg/kg bolus dose, followed by 0.8 mcg/kg/hour infusion.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Pediatric

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Dosing: Adult

(For additional information see "Levothyroxine: Drug information")

Dosage guidance:

Dosing: Individual T4 requirements correlate better with lean body mass than total body weight; in patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, initial dosing based on lean body weight is preferred to avoid overreplacement (Ref). Initial doses >200 mcg/day are rarely used, regardless of patient weight (Ref).

Clinical considerations: Levothyroxine is synthetic thyroxine (T4). Due to its prolonged half-life, levothyroxine steady-state concentrations are not achieved until ~6 weeks after therapy is initiated or dosage adjustment; therefore, the full effect at a given dose may not be apparent until then.

Deceased organ donor management

Deceased organ donor management (hormonal resuscitation for the deceased organ donor) (off-label use):

Note: Data supporting benefit are conflicting; if given, guidelines suggest use in hemodynamically unstable donors and/or potential cardiac donors with decreased left ejection fraction (<45%) (Ref).

IV: Initial: 20 mcg bolus, followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mcg/hour; levothyroxine is usually given as part of combination hormone therapy with vasopressin, methylprednisolone, and insulin (Ref).

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism:

Note: Dose is individualized according to clinical response and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and/or free T4 concentrations (Ref). Average maintenance dose is ~1.6 mcg/kg/day; range of required doses is wide and varies from 50 to ≥200 mcg/day (Ref). Maintenance doses >300 mcg/day are rarely required; in patients who require high doses (eg, >2 mcg/kg/day), consider missed doses, malabsorption, and/or drug interactions (Ref).

Primary hypothyroidism: Note: Adjust initial dose by 12 to 25 mcg/day every 3 to 6 weeks based on clinical response and serum TSH and/or free T4 concentrations until TSH is normalized at a stable dose for ≥6 weeks (Ref).

Patients ≤60 years of age without evidence of coronary heart disease: Oral: Initial: 1.6 mcg/kg/day (Ref).

Patients >60 years of age without evidence of coronary heart disease: Oral: Initial: 25 to 50 mcg once daily (Ref).

Patients with coronary heart disease: Oral: Initial: 12.5 to 50 mcg once daily (Ref); monitor for the onset of cardiac symptoms (eg, angina) and decrease the dose if needed (Ref). Note: Patients without other significant comorbidities who have had recent successful interventions to treat ischemia (eg, coronary artery bypass grafting or coronary artery stenting) can initially receive up to 80% of the weight-based dose (1.6 mcg/kg/day) (Ref). See also “Dosing” at the top of “Dosing: Adult” section.

Pregnant patients: Note: Thyroid function tests should be interpreted using population-based, trimester-specific reference ranges for TSH and assay method- and trimester-specific reference ranges for serum free T4 (Ref).

Preexisting hypothyroidism in patients receiving levothyroxine prenatally: Patients with suspected or confirmed pregnancy:

Oral: Immediately increase the current dose by ~20% to 30% (eg, administer 2 additional tablets weekly) and adjust dose as needed every 4 weeks (Ref).

Newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism:

Oral: Initial: 1.6 mcg/kg/day; a lower dose of 1 mcg/kg/day may be used in some patients. Adjust dose by 12.5 to 25 mcg/day every 4 to 6 weeks if needed based on TSH levels to restore euthyroidism as soon as possible (Ref).

Newly diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism (off-label use):

Note: The decision to treat is based on the degree of TSH elevation and the presence or absence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. If treated, goal is to restore euthyroidism (Ref). Some experts treat pregnant patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (defined as TSH above trimester-specific normal reference range [or >4 milliunits/L if trimester-specific range unavailable] with normal free T4), regardless of thyroid peroxidase antibody status, and would consider treatment in select pregnant patients with TSH levels between 2.6 and 4 milliunits/L based on the presence or absence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies, clinical factors, and patient preferences (Ref).

Oral: Initial: 1 mcg/kg/day or 25 to 50 mcg daily; adjust dose by ~12.5 to 25 mcg/day as needed every 4 weeks (Ref). Therapy should be closely monitored and adjusted to avoid overtreatment, which may result in adverse maternal and fetal outcomes (Ref).

Postpartum dosage adjustment: In patients treated prenatally for hypothyroidism, decrease the dose to preconception levels following delivery. In patients who were initiated on levothyroxine during pregnancy, evaluate the need for continued treatment (Ref).

Subclinical hypothyroidism (off-label use):

Note: Treatment may be considered in select patients with TSH levels above normal reference range depending on degree of TSH abnormality, age, and symptoms (Ref). In patients with TSH >10 milliunits/L, treatment is generally warranted, whereas benefit of treatment in asymptomatic patients with TSH levels between 4.5 and 10 milliunits/L is not well established (Ref).

Adults <50 years of age without coronary heart disease: Oral: Initial: 1.5 mcg/kg/day (Ref).

Patients with coronary heart disease or ≥50 years of age: Oral: Initial: 25 to 50 mcg once daily (Ref).

Dosage adjustment: Initial dose is adjusted by 12 to 25 mcg/day once every 6 weeks until targeted TSH is achieved with a stable dose for ≥6 weeks; thereafter assess TSH level annually (Ref).

Postpartum thyroiditis (hypothyroid phase):

Note: For use in patients who are symptomatic, breastfeeding, or planning another pregnancy (Ref); some experts will treat asymptomatic patients who have a TSH ≥10 milliunits/L (Ref). Dosing recommendations and duration of treatment are not standardized; treatment is individualized according to clinical assessment:

Oral: An initial dose of 50 to 100 mcg once daily or 1.6 mcg/kg/day has been suggested (Ref). Adjust dose every 6 weeks if needed based on TSH levels (Ref).

Duration of therapy: After 6 to 12 months, may consider gradual tapering of the dose (eg, every 6 to 8 weeks) with a goal of discontinuation; levothyroxine should not be tapered in patients who are pregnant or attempting to conceive (Ref).

Secondary or tertiary (central) hypothyroidism:

Note: Patients with secondary or tertiary (central) hypothyroidism should undergo assessment of their pituitary-adrenal function prior to initiation of therapy. If shown to have adrenal insufficiency, concomitant administration of a glucocorticoid is recommended to prevent an adrenal crisis (Ref).

Oral: Initial: 1.6 mcg/kg/day; initiate treatment at a lower dose in older patients or patients with underlying coronary heart disease (Ref). Adjust dose based on clinical response and serum free T4 concentrations. TSH cannot be used to monitor therapy (Ref).

Hypothy roidism, immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced:

Healthy adults ≤65 years of age: Oral: Initial: 1.5 to 1.6 mcg/kg/day (Ref).

Adults with coronary heart disease or >65 years of age: Oral: Initial: 25 to 50 mcg once daily (Ref).

Myxedema coma

Myxedema coma:

IV: Initial loading dose of 200 to 400 mcg as a slow bolus; followed by a daily replacement dose of 50 to 100 mcg until the patient improves clinically and can transition to oral therapy; consider doses on the lower end of the dosing range for smaller or older patients and those with a history of or at risk for coronary disease or arrhythmia; concomitant glucocorticoid therapy (eg, stress doses of hydrocortisone) is required until the possibility of coexisting adrenal insufficiency is excluded (Ref); some experts administer liothyronine (T3) concomitantly with levothyroxine (T4) (Ref).

TSH suppression

TSH suppression:

Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular): Dosage is highly individualized as the degree of TSH suppression is initially based on the risk of disease recurrence using a staging system such as the American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk-of-recurrence stratification system (Ref). Long-term TSH suppression goals should account for response to therapy, risk of recurrent disease, age, and comorbid conditions (Ref).

Oral: Initial: 1.6 to 2 mcg/kg/day immediately postsurgery (Ref); adjust dose as needed in 6 weeks based on TSH suppression goals (Ref):

Note: For patients with ATA low- and intermediate-risk disease whose initial surgery was a lobectomy, some experts initiate therapy at a later time when TSH concentrations or disease status dictate a need (Ref).

Benign solitary nodules and nontoxic multinodular goiter: Routine use of levothyroxine for TSH suppression is not recommended in euthyroid patients with benign thyroid nodules in iodine-sufficient geographic areas. In patients deemed appropriate candidates, treatment should never be fully suppressive (ie, do not target TSH <0.1 milliunits/L) (Ref).

IV/IM replacement in patients who are temporarily unable to receive oral therapy:

IM (off-label route), IV (off-label use): Administer ~70% to 80% of the established oral dose once daily (Ref).

Dose conversion from other thyroid hormone products to levothyroxine:

Note: When switching from other thyroid hormone products to levothyroxine, monitor TSH levels 6 weeks after levothyroxine is initiated and adjust accordingly to maintain TSH levels in the target range (Ref).

Conversion from desiccated thyroid to levothyroxine: Oral: 60 or 65 mg/day of desiccated thyroid is equivalent to ~88 to 100 mcg/day of levothyroxine (Ref).

Conversion from levothyroxine/liothyronine combinations to levothyroxine: Oral: Liothyronine is ~4 times as potent as levothyroxine. Therefore, one approach is to multiply the liothyronine component by 4 and add this to the current levothyroxine component to get the new daily levothyroxine dose (Ref). For example, if the current dose is liothyronine 12.5 mcg/levothyroxine 50 mcg per day, the new levothyroxine dose would be calculated as follows:

New levothyroxine dose (mcg/day) = (4 × 12.5 mcg/day [current liothyronine dose]) + 50 mcg/day [current levothyroxine dose] = 100 mcg/day

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Kidney Impairment: Adult

The renal dosing recommendations are based upon the best available evidence and clinical expertise. Senior Editorial Team: Bruce Mueller, PharmD, FCCP, FASN, FNKF; Jason Roberts, PhD, BPharm (Hons), B App Sc, FSHP, FISAC; Michael Heung, MD, MS.

Mild to severe impairment: Initial: No dosage adjustment necessary (Ref).

Hemodialysis, intermittent (thrice weekly): Unlikely to be significantly dialyzed (Ref): No supplemental dose or dosage adjustment necessary (Ref).

Peritoneal dialysis: Unlikely to be significantly dialyzed (Ref): No dosage adjustment necessary (Ref).

CRRT: No dosage adjustment necessary (Ref).

PIRRT (eg, sustained, low-efficiency diafiltration): No dosage adjustment necessary (Ref).

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment: Adult

There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer's labeling.

Adverse Reactions (Significant): Considerations
Cardiovascular effects

Potentially life-threatening cardiovascular effects may occur with levothyroxine. The effects commonly result from overtreatment (Ref) but can also occur with initiation of levothyroxine, especially in patients with severe hypothyroidism or in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or arrhythmias (Ref). Effects may include palpitations (Ref), tachycardia, exercise intolerance, dyspnea on exertion, widened pulse pressure, and atrial fibrillation (Ref); cardiac overload and arrhythmias have been described in infants.

Mechanism: Dose-related; several proposed mechanisms, including abnormal myocardial response to catecholamines (Ref) and increased number and sensitivity of adrenergic receptors in the cardiovascular system (Ref).

Risk factors:

• History of cardiovascular disease (Ref)

• Treatment initiation (Ref)

• Overtreatment (Ref)

• Older patients (conflicting data) (Ref)

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified. Adverse reactions are primarily those of hyperthyroidism due to therapeutic overdosage.

Frequency not defined:

Cardiovascular: Angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac failure, flushing, increased blood pressure, increased pulse, tachycardia

Dermatologic: Alopecia, diaphoresis, skin rash

Endocrine & metabolic: Goiter (exophthalmic; IV), menstrual disease, weight loss

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, increased appetite, vomiting

Genitourinary: Reduced fertility

Hepatic: Increased liver enzymes

Nervous system: Anxiety, emotional lability, fatigue, headache, heat intolerance, hyperactive behavior, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (children), insomnia, irritability, myasthenia, nervousness

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Craniosynostosis (infants; dose-related [ie, overtreatment]) (Penfold 1975), decreased bone mineral density (dose- and duration-related) (Coindre 1986; Schneider 1994), muscle spasm, slipped capital femoral epiphysis (children), tremor

Respiratory: Dyspnea

Miscellaneous: Fever

Postmarketing:

Cardiovascular: Acute myocardial infarction (Oe 2007), cardiomyopathy (takotsubo) (Balsa 2017), palpitations (Biondi 2000)

Dermatologic: Lichenoid eruption (Kaur 2003), urticaria (Sala 2008)

Gastrointestinal: Dysgeusia (Syed 2016)

Hepatic: Hepatitis (Hlaihel 2019)

Nervous system: Acute mania (Yu 2017), seizure

Contraindications

Injection: Uncorrected adrenal insufficiency; consider contraindications for oral therapy if using as a temporary substitute for oral treatment (off-label use) in patients with chronic hypothyroidism.

Oral: Uncorrected adrenal insufficiency; hypersensitivity to glycerol (Ermeza, Tirosint-SOL oral solution) and edetate disodium (Ermeza); Note: Consult individual product labeling as they may vary. Reported hypersensitivity to levothyroxine or any component of the formulation is not considered an absolute contraindication (ATA [Jonklaas 2014]); refer to "Warnings/Precautions."

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to levothyroxine or any component of the formulation; untreated pituitary insufficiency, subclinical thyrotoxicosis, overt thyrotoxicosis of any etiology, acute myocardial infarction, acute myocarditis, or acute pancarditis; pregnant women taking medications for hyperthyroidism (eg, methimazole, propylthiouracil). Note: Consult individual product labeling as they may vary.

Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Warnings/Precautions

Disease-related concerns:

• Adrenal insufficiency: Use with caution in patients with adrenal insufficiency; symptoms may be exaggerated or aggravated. Treatment with glucocorticoids should precede levothyroxine therapy in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Use is contraindicated in patients with uncorrected adrenal insufficiency.

• Benign thyroid nodules: Appropriate use: Routine use of T4 for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression is not recommended in patients with benign thyroid nodules. Treatment should never be fully suppressive (TSH <0.1 milliunits/L) (AACE/ACE/AME [Gharib 2016]; ATA [Haugen 2016]).

- Use of T4 may be considered in association with iodine supplementation only in young patients residing in iodine-deficient areas with small thyroid nodules and no evidence of functional autonomy (AACE/ACE/AME [Gharib 2016]).

- Use should be avoided in postmenopausal patients, older adults, patients with cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, large thyroid nodules or long-standing goiters, or low-normal TSH levels (AACE/ACE/AME [Gharib 2016]).

• Cardiovascular disease: May require lower initial dose and conservative dose titration. Refer to dosing.

• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus (may worsen glycemic control) and diabetes insipidus (thyroid hormone increases glomerular filtration rate and downregulates aquaporin channels in the renal tubules, which could affect urinary output) (Mariani 2012).

• Osteoporosis: Thyroid hormone overreplacement may result in increased bone resorption and decreased bone mineral density, especially in postmenopausal patients; use the lowest effective dose to achieve therapy goals.

• Subacute thyroiditis: Transient and mild hypothyroidism during the recovery phase of subacute thyroiditis often can be managed without treatment; levothyroxine therapy may be required in patients with overt and clinical hypothyroidism (Farwell 2013).

Special populations:

• Older adults: Use with caution; May require lower initial dose and conservative dose titration. Refer to dosing.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Product interchangeability: Switching between different levothyroxine products may result in variations in the administered dose and altered TSH values and is not generally recommended; if formulations are changed, close monitoring of TSH is recommended (ATA [Jonklaas 2014]). Pediatric patients with congenital hypothyroidism may be more sensitive to changes in formulation (Carswell 2013).

Other warnings/precautions:

• Hypersensitivity: Patients with reported hypersensitivity to levothyroxine may be managed with dose reductions and slow titration, by switching formulations or products, or referral to an allergist (ATA [Jonklaas 2014]).

Warnings: Additional Pediatric Considerations

Overtreatment may result in craniosynostosis in infants and premature closure of epiphyses in children; monitor use closely. In neonates and infants, aspiration from avid suckling may occur during initiation of therapy (eg, first 2 weeks); monitor closely.

Some dosage forms may contain glycerol; glycerol may cause GI irritation and lead to vomiting and/or osmotic diarrhea. Pediatric patients ≤3 months of age are especially susceptible to fluid and electrolyte disturbances from glycerol-induced GI irritation; closely monitor these patients for signs and symptoms.

Dosage Forms: US

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Capsule, Oral, as sodium:

Tirosint: 13 mcg, 25 mcg, 37.5 mcg, 44 mcg, 50 mcg, 62.5 mcg, 75 mcg, 88 mcg, 100 mcg, 112 mcg, 125 mcg, 137 mcg, 150 mcg, 175 mcg, 200 mcg

Generic: 13 mcg, 25 mcg, 50 mcg, 75 mcg, 88 mcg, 100 mcg, 112 mcg, 125 mcg, 137 mcg, 150 mcg, 175 mcg, 200 mcg

Solution, Intravenous:

Generic: 100 mcg/5 mL (5 mL)

Solution, Intravenous [preservative free]:

Generic: 100 mcg/5 mL (5 mL); 200 mcg/5 mL (5 mL); 500 mcg/5 mL (5 mL)

Solution, Oral:

Tirosint-SOL: 37.5 mcg/mL (1 mL); 44 mcg/mL (1 mL); 62.5 mcg/mL (1 mL)

Solution, Intravenous, as sodium [preservative free]:

Generic: 100 mcg/mL (1 mL)

Solution, Oral, as sodium:

Ermeza: 150 mcg/5 mL (75 mL, 150 mL) [contains edetate (edta) disodium]

Thyquidity: 100 mcg/5 mL (100 mL) [contains methylparaben sodium]

Tirosint-SOL: 13 mcg/mL (1 mL); 25 mcg/mL (1 mL); 50 mcg/mL (1 mL); 75 mcg/mL (1 mL); 88 mcg/mL (1 mL); 100 mcg/mL (1 mL); 112 mcg/mL (1 mL); 125 mcg/mL (1 mL); 137 mcg/mL (1 mL); 150 mcg/mL (1 mL); 175 mcg/mL (1 mL); 200 mcg/mL (1 mL)

Solution Reconstituted, Intravenous, as sodium [preservative free]:

Generic: 100 mcg (1 ea); 200 mcg (1 ea); 500 mcg (1 ea)

Tablet, Oral, as sodium:

Euthyrox: 25 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 25 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 50 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 50 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 75 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 75 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 88 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 88 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 100 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 100 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 112 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 112 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 125 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 125 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 137 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 137 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 150 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 150 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 175 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 175 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 200 mcg [contains corn starch]

Euthyrox: 200 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Levoxyl: 25 mcg [scored; contains fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake]

Levoxyl: 50 mcg [scored]

Levoxyl: 75 mcg [scored; contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake]

Levoxyl: 88 mcg [scored; contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Levoxyl: 100 mcg [scored; contains fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Levoxyl: 112 mcg [scored; contains fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake]

Levoxyl: 125 mcg [scored; contains fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Levoxyl: 137 mcg, 150 mcg [scored; contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake]

Levoxyl: 175 mcg [scored; contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Levoxyl: 200 mcg [scored; contains quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 25 mcg [scored; contains fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake]

Synthroid: 50 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Synthroid: 75 mcg [scored; contains corn starch, fd&c blue #2 (indigo carm) aluminum lake, fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 88 mcg [scored; contains corn starch, fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 100 mcg [scored; contains corn starch, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 112 mcg [scored; contains corn starch]

Synthroid: 125 mcg [scored; contains corn starch, fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake]

Synthroid: 137 mcg [scored; contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 150 mcg [scored; contains fd&c blue #2 (indigo carm) aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 175 mcg [scored; contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 200 mcg [scored; contains fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 300 mcg [scored; contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Unithroid: 25 mcg [contains fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake]

Unithroid: 50 mcg

Unithroid: 75 mcg [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigo carm) aluminum lake, fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake]

Unithroid: 88 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Unithroid: 100 mcg [contains fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Unithroid: 112 mcg

Unithroid: 125 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake]

Unithroid: 137 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake]

Unithroid: 150 mcg [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigo carm) aluminum lake]

Unithroid: 175 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake]

Unithroid: 200 mcg [contains fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake]

Unithroid: 300 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline yellow (d&c yellow #10)]

Generic: 25 mcg, 50 mcg, 75 mcg, 88 mcg, 100 mcg, 112 mcg, 125 mcg, 137 mcg, 150 mcg, 175 mcg, 200 mcg, 300 mcg

Generic Equivalent Available: US

Yes

Pricing: US

Capsules (Levothyroxine Sodium Oral)

13 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

25 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

50 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

75 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

88 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

100 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

112 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

125 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

137 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

150 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

175 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

200 mcg (per each): $4.95 - $5.07

Capsules (Tirosint Oral)

13 mcg (per each): $5.48

25 mcg (per each): $5.48

37.5 mcg (per each): $5.48

44 mcg (per each): $5.48

50 mcg (per each): $5.48

62.5 mcg (per each): $5.48

75 mcg (per each): $5.48

88 mcg (per each): $5.48

100 mcg (per each): $5.48

112 mcg (per each): $5.48

125 mcg (per each): $5.48

137 mcg (per each): $5.48

150 mcg (per each): $5.48

175 mcg (per each): $5.48

200 mcg (per each): $5.48

Solution (Ermeza Oral)

150 mcg/5 mL (per mL): $2.07

Solution (Levothyroxine Sodium Intravenous)

100 mcg/5 mL (per mL): $17.98 - $26.61

100 mcg/mL (per mL): $89.92

200 mcg/5 mL (per mL): $53.21

500 mcg/5 mL (per mL): $133.03

Solution (Thyquidity Oral)

100 mcg/5 mL (per mL): $1.45

Solution (Tirosint-SOL Oral)

13 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

25 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

37.5 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

44 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

50 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

62.5 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

75 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

88 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

100 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

112 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

125 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

137 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

150 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

175 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

200 mcg/mL (per mL): $5.56

Solution (reconstituted) (Levothyroxine Sodium Intravenous)

100 mcg (per each): $110.17 - $126.70

200 mcg (per each): $228.42 - $264.00

500 mcg (per each): $570.78 - $633.49

Tablets (Euthyrox Oral)

25 mcg (per each): $0.55

50 mcg (per each): $0.62

75 mcg (per each): $0.68

88 mcg (per each): $0.70

100 mcg (per each): $0.70

112 mcg (per each): $0.81

125 mcg (per each): $0.82

137 mcg (per each): $0.83

150 mcg (per each): $0.85

175 mcg (per each): $1.01

200 mcg (per each): $1.01

Tablets (Levo-T Oral)

25 mcg (per each): $0.44

50 mcg (per each): $0.50

75 mcg (per each): $0.55

88 mcg (per each): $0.56

100 mcg (per each): $0.56

112 mcg (per each): $0.65

125 mcg (per each): $0.66

137 mcg (per each): $0.67

150 mcg (per each): $0.68

175 mcg (per each): $0.81

200 mcg (per each): $0.81

300 mcg (per each): $1.04

Tablets (Levothyroxine Sodium Oral)

25 mcg (per each): $0.09 - $1.63

50 mcg (per each): $0.09 - $1.63

75 mcg (per each): $0.09 - $1.63

88 mcg (per each): $0.13 - $1.63

100 mcg (per each): $0.09 - $1.63

112 mcg (per each): $0.09 - $1.63

125 mcg (per each): $0.09 - $1.63

137 mcg (per each): $0.19 - $1.63

150 mcg (per each): $0.09 - $1.63

175 mcg (per each): $0.10 - $1.63

200 mcg (per each): $0.13 - $1.63

300 mcg (per each): $0.13 - $1.63

Tablets (Levoxyl Oral)

25 mcg (per each): $0.88

50 mcg (per each): $1.00

75 mcg (per each): $1.11

88 mcg (per each): $1.13

100 mcg (per each): $1.13

112 mcg (per each): $1.31

125 mcg (per each): $1.33

137 mcg (per each): $1.35

150 mcg (per each): $1.37

175 mcg (per each): $1.63

200 mcg (per each): $1.58

Tablets (Synthroid Oral)

25 mcg (per each): $1.80

50 mcg (per each): $1.80

75 mcg (per each): $1.80

88 mcg (per each): $1.80

100 mcg (per each): $1.80

112 mcg (per each): $1.80

125 mcg (per each): $1.80

137 mcg (per each): $1.80

150 mcg (per each): $1.80

175 mcg (per each): $1.80

200 mcg (per each): $1.80

300 mcg (per each): $1.80

Tablets (Unithroid Oral)

25 mcg (per each): $4.78

50 mcg (per each): $4.78

75 mcg (per each): $4.79

88 mcg (per each): $4.80

100 mcg (per each): $4.81

112 mcg (per each): $4.82

125 mcg (per each): $4.82

137 mcg (per each): $4.83

150 mcg (per each): $4.83

175 mcg (per each): $4.84

200 mcg (per each): $4.84

300 mcg (per each): $4.85

Disclaimer: A representative AWP (Average Wholesale Price) price or price range is provided as reference price only. A range is provided when more than one manufacturer's AWP price is available and uses the low and high price reported by the manufacturers to determine the range. The pricing data should be used for benchmarking purposes only, and as such should not be used alone to set or adjudicate any prices for reimbursement or purchasing functions or considered to be an exact price for a single product and/or manufacturer. Medi-Span expressly disclaims all warranties of any kind or nature, whether express or implied, and assumes no liability with respect to accuracy of price or price range data published in its solutions. In no event shall Medi-Span be liable for special, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from use of price or price range data. Pricing data is updated monthly.

Dosage Forms: Canada

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Solution, Injection:

Generic: 200 mcg/5 mL (5 mL); 500 mcg/5 mL (5 mL)

Solution Reconstituted, Injection, as sodium:

Synthroid: 500 mcg (1 ea, 10 ea)

Generic: 200 mcg (1 ea); 500 mcg (1 ea)

Tablet, Oral, as sodium:

Euthyrox: 25 mcg [DSC] [contains fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Euthyrox: 50 mcg [DSC]

Euthyrox: 75 mcg [DSC] [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c blue #2 (indigo carm) aluminum lake, fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake]

Euthyrox: 88 mcg [DSC] [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigo carm) aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #5 (tartrazine)aluminum lake]

Euthyrox: 100 mcg [DSC] [contains fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Euthyrox: 112 mcg [DSC]

Euthyrox: 125 mcg [DSC] [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c blue #2 (indigo carm) aluminum lake, fd&c red #40(allura red ac)aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #5 (tartrazine)aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake]

Euthyrox: 137 mcg [DSC] [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake]

Euthyrox: 150 mcg [DSC], 175 mcg [DSC] [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigo carm) aluminum lake]

Euthyrox: 200 mcg [DSC]

Euthyrox: 300 mcg [DSC] [contains fd&c blue #1 (brill blue) aluminum lake, fd&c yellow #6(sunset yellow)alumin lake, quinoline (d&c yellow #10) aluminum lake]

Synthroid: 25 mcg [contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]

Synthroid: 50 mcg

Synthroid: 75 mcg [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigotine,indigo carmine), fd&c red #40 (allura red ac dye)]

Synthroid: 88 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brilliant blue), fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), quinoline yellow (d&c yellow #10)]

Synthroid: 100 mcg [contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), quinoline yellow (d&c yellow #10)]

Synthroid: 112 mcg

Synthroid: 125 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brilliant blue), fd&c red #40 (allura red ac dye), fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]

Synthroid: 137 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brilliant blue)]

Synthroid: 150 mcg [contains fd&c blue #2 (indigotine,indigo carmine)]

Synthroid: 175 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brilliant blue)]

Synthroid: 200 mcg [contains fd&c red #40 (allura red ac dye)]

Synthroid: 300 mcg [contains fd&c blue #1 (brilliant blue), fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow), quinoline yellow (d&c yellow #10)]

Generic: 50 mcg, 100 mcg, 150 mcg, 200 mcg

Extemporaneous Preparations

Note: A levothyroxine oral solution (multiple concentrations) is commercially available (Thyquidity, Tirosint-SOL) and is preferred over extemporaneous preparation (AAP 2006; ATA [Jonklaas 2014]; ENDO-ERN [van Trotsenburg 2021]).

25 mcg/mL Oral Suspension

A 25 mcg/mL oral suspension may be made with tablets and 40 mL glycerol. Crush twenty-five 100 mcg levothyroxine tablets in a mortar and reduce to a fine powder. Add small portions of glycerol and mix to a uniform suspension. Transfer to a calibrated 100 mL amber bottle; rinse the mortar with about 10 mL of glycerol and pour into the bottle; repeat until all 40 mL of glycerol is used. Add quantity of water sufficient to make 100 mL. Label "shake well" and "refrigerate". Stable for 8 days refrigerated.

Boulton DW, Fawcett JP, and Woods DJ, "Stability of an Extemporaneously Compounded Levothyroxine Sodium Oral Liquid," Am J Health Syst Pharm, 1996, 53(10):1157-61.8734676
Additional Information

For purposes of conversion, levothyroxine sodium (T4) 100 mcg is approximately equivalent to desiccated thyroid 60 to 65 mg (1 grain), thyroglobulin 60 to 65 mg (1 grain), or liothyronine sodium (T3) 25 mcg (Cytomel Prescribing Information 2016). However, these are rough guidelines only and do not obviate the careful re-evaluation of a patient when switching thyroid hormone preparations, including a change from one brand of levothyroxine to another.

Administration: Pediatric

Oral: Administer consistently on an empty stomach at the same time each day, either 30 to 60 minutes prior to breakfast or at night 3 to 4 hours after the last meal (Ref); allow families to choose morning or bedtime regimen based on convenience as efficacy is comparable between regimens (Ref). If administration on an empty stomach poses a challenge, particularly in neonates, infants, and small children, it may be administered with food (avoiding soy protein and vegetable fiber) to improve adherence and consistency of administration; consistent administration in relation to time of day and to food is most important (Ref). Do not administer within 4 hours of other medications known to interfere with levothyroxine absorption (eg, calcium- or iron-containing products or bile acid sequestrants).

Capsules: Children ≥6 years and Adolescents: Must be swallowed whole; do not cut, crush, chew, or attempt to dissolve capsules in water to prepare a suspension.

Solution:

Thyquidity: Administer directly into mouth using a calibrated oral syringe; do not use a household teaspoon or tablespoon.

Tirosint-SOL: May administer undiluted or diluted in water only (do not dilute with any other liquid).

Undiluted: Squeeze contents of single unit-dose ampule into mouth or onto a spoon and administer immediately.

Dilution with water: Squeeze contents of ampule into a glass or cup containing water, stir, and then administer entire contents immediately. Rinse glass or cup with additional water and administer contents to ensure entire dose is consumed.

Tablets: Administer with a full glass of water (choking, gagging, and dysphagia has been reported with some formulations). For infants and children who cannot swallow tablet whole, crush tablet and mix with small amount (5 to 10 mL) of water, breast milk, or non–soy-based formula and use immediately (Ref).

Nasogastric tube: Bioavailability of levothyroxine (crushed tablets suspended in water) is reduced if administered with enteral tube feeds. Since holding feedings may not be appropriate for some patients and holding feedings for at least 1 hour before and after levothyroxine administration may not completely resolve the interaction, an increase in dose (eg, additional 25 mcg in adults) may be necessary (Ref). Consider more frequent thyroid function test monitoring (eg, every 1 to 3 weeks) if prolonged administration of enteral tube feeds is required (Ref). Adult data suggest that use of the oral solution (Tirosint-SOL) may not require interruption of tube feeds (Ref).

Parenteral:

IV:

Hypothyroidism, acquired or congenital: Administer IV over 2 to 3 minutes.

Deceased organ donor management: IV bolus, followed by continuous IV infusion (Ref).

IM: May be administered intramuscularly when oral administration is not feasible (Ref).

Missed doses: Given the long half-life of levothyroxine, patients should be advised to take any missed doses (Ref).

Administration: Adult

Oral: Administer consistently in the morning on an empty stomach, at least 30 to 60 minutes before food. Alternatively, may consistently administer at night 3 to 4 hours after the last meal (Ref). Do not administer within 4 hours of calcium- or iron-containing products or bile acid sequestrants.

Capsule: Must be swallowed whole; do not cut, crush, or chew.

Solution:

Ermeza: Administer directly into mouth using the 5 mL or 10 mL oral syringe (provided in carton); do not use a household teaspoon or tablespoon. For doses ≤5 mL, use the 5 mL syringe and round up or down to the nearest graduation mark (0.1 mL) and for doses >5 mL, use the 10 mL syringe and round up or down to the nearest graduation mark (0.2 mL).

Thyquidity: Administer directly into mouth using a calibrated oral syringe; do not use a household teaspoon or tablespoon.

Tirosint-SOL: May administer undiluted or diluted in water only (do not dilute with any other liquid); if administering undiluted, squeeze contents of single unit-dose ampule into mouth or onto a spoon and administer immediately. If diluting with water, squeeze contents of ampule into a glass or cup, stir, and then administer entire contents immediately. Rinse glass or cup with additional water and administer contents to ensure entire dose is consumed.

Tablet: Administer with a full glass of water (choking, gagging, and dysphagia have been reported with some formulations). May be crushed and suspended in 5 to 10 mL of water; suspension should be used immediately.

Nasogastric tube: Bioavailability of extemporaneously prepared levothyroxine (crushed tablets suspended in water) may be reduced if administered with enteral tube feeds; although data are limited, temporarily holding tube feeds before and after levothyroxine administration (eg, for 30 to 60 minutes) has been suggested (Ref). Alternatively, use of the oral solution (Tirosint-SOL) may not require interruption of tube feeds (Ref). Consider more frequent thyroid function test monitoring (eg, every 1 to 3 weeks) if prolonged administration of enteral tube feeds is required (Ref).

Parenteral: May be administered by IV injection at a maximum rate of 100 mcg/minute; may also be administered IM when oral administration is not feasible (off-label route).

Cadaveric organ recovery (hormonal resuscitation) (off-label use): After IV bolus administration, may administer as a continuous infusion (Ref).

Storage/Stability

Capsules and tablets: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F). Protect from heat, light, and moisture.

Oral solution:

Ermeza: Store in original container at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F). Protect from light. Discard any unused portion after 90 days of first opening bottle.

Thyquidity: Store in original container at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from light. Discard any unused portion after 8 weeks of first opening bottle.

Tirosint-SOL: Store in original container (closed aluminum pouch) at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F). Keep ampules in pouch until ready to use; after opening the pouch, all ampules in the pouch should be used within 3 months.

Injection: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from light.

Additional stability data:

Stability in polypropylene syringes (100 mcg/mL in NS) at 5°C ± 1°C is 7 days (Gupta 2000).

Stability in latex-free, PVC minibags protected from light and stored at 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) was 12 hours for a 2 mcg/mL concentration or 18 hours for a 0.4 mcg/mL concentration in NS. May be exposed to light; however, stability time is significantly reduced, especially for the 2 mcg/mL concentration (Strong 2010).

Use

Oral:

Tablets: Replacement or supplemental therapy in congenital or acquired hypothyroidism of any etiology (FDA approved in all ages); pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressant for adjunct treatment to surgery and radioiodine therapy in the management of thyrotropin-dependent, well-differentiated thyroid cancer (Levolet, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid: FDA approved in pediatric patients [age not specified] and adults).

Oral solution: Replacement or supplemental therapy in congenital or acquired hypothyroidism of any etiology (Thyquidity, Tirosint-SOL: FDA approved in all ages); pituitary TSH suppressant for adjunct treatment to surgery and radioiodine therapy in the management of thyrotropin-dependent, well-differentiated thyroid cancer (Thyquidity, Tirosint-SOL: FDA approved in pediatric patients [age not specified] and adults).

Capsules: Replacement or supplemental therapy in congenital or acquired hypothyroidism of any etiology (FDA approved in ages ≥6 years and adults); pituitary TSH suppressant for adjunct treatment to surgery and radioiodine therapy in the management of thyrotropin-dependent, well-differentiated thyroid cancer (Tirosint: FDA approved in ages ≥6 years and adults).

Note: All oral dosage forms are NOT indicated for treatment of transient hypothyroidism during the recovery phase of subacute thyroiditis or for suppression of benign thyroid nodules and nontoxic diffuse goiter in iodine-sufficient patients.

Parenteral: Treatment of myxedema coma (FDA approved in adults); has also been used for organ donor management.

Medication Safety Issues
Sound-alike/look-alike issues:

Levothyroxine may be confused with lamoTRIgine, Lanoxin, levoFLOXacin, liothyronine

Levoxyl may be confused with Lanoxin, Levaquin, Luvox

Synthroid may be confused with Symmetrel

Administration issues:

Oral solutions vary in concentration; consider total dosage in terms of mcg and not volume (mL) when converting between oral solution products.

Significant differences exist between oral and IV dosing. Use caution when converting from one route of administration to another.

Other safety concerns:

To avoid errors due to misinterpretation of a decimal point, always express dosage in mcg (not mg).

Metabolism/Transport Effects

None known.

Drug Interactions

Note: Interacting drugs may not be individually listed below if they are part of a group interaction (eg, individual drugs within “CYP3A4 Inducers [Strong]” are NOT listed). For a complete list of drug interactions by individual drug name and detailed management recommendations, use the Lexicomp drug interactions program by clicking on the “Launch drug interactions program” link above.

Amezinium: Thyroid Products may enhance the stimulatory effect of Amezinium. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Amiodarone: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Antacids: May increase the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Apalutamide: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Management: Administer oral thyroid products at least 4 hours prior to or one hour after bile acid sequestrants, or monitor for decreased serum concentrations and clinical effects of oral thyroid products during coadministration. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Management: Consider administering thyroid products at least 4 hours prior to calcium polystyrene sulfonate. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism with concomitant use. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Calcium Salts: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Management: Separate the doses of the thyroid product and the oral calcium supplement by at least 4 hours. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of thyroid products if an oral calcium supplement is initiated/dose increased. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

CarBAMazepine: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Cardiac Glycosides: Thyroid Products may decrease the serum concentration of Cardiac Glycosides. Specifically, returning to a euthyroid state from a hypothyroid state may decrease the serum concentration of cardiac glycosides. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ciprofloxacin (Systemic): May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Estrogen Derivatives: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Etofenamate: May decrease the protein binding of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Fosphenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Phenytoin may also displace thyroid hormones from protein binding sites. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Furosemide: May decrease the protein binding of Thyroid Products. This may lead to a transient increase in free thyroid hormone concentrations and to a later decrease in total thyroid hormone concentrations. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Heparin: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Imatinib: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Iron Preparations: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Management: Separate oral administration of iron preparations and levothyroxine by at least 4 hours. Separation of doses is not required with parenterally administered iron preparations or levothyroxine. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Isoproterenol: Levothyroxine may enhance the therapeutic effect of Isoproterenol. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ketamine: Levothyroxine may enhance the hypertensive effect of Ketamine. Levothyroxine may enhance the tachycardic effect of Ketamine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Lanthanum: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Management: Separate the administration of thyroid products and lanthanum by at least 4 hours. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Magnesium Salts: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Management: Separate administration of oral levothyroxine and oral magnesium salts by at least 4 hours. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Maprotiline: Levothyroxine may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Maprotiline. Maprotiline may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Meclofenamate: May decrease the protein binding of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Mefenamic Acid: May decrease the protein binding of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Management: Separate oral administration of iron-containing multivitamins and levothyroxine by at least 4 hours. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of thyroid products if a multivitamin is initiated/dose increased. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Orlistat: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Management: Separate administration of oral levothyroxine and orlistat by a least 4 hours. Monitor patients closely for signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Patiromer: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Management: Administer oral levothyroxine at least 3 hours before or 3 hours after patiromer. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

PHENobarbital: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Phenytoin: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Phenytoin may also displace thyroid hormones from protein binding sites. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Piracetam: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Thyroid Products. Specifically, symptoms including confusion, irritability, and sleep disorder have been described during concomitant use. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Polaprezinc: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Management: Separate administration of polaprezinc and levothyroxine by at least several hours, and monitor for reduced effects of levothyroxine during polaprezinc treatment. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Primidone: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Raloxifene: May decrease the absorption of Levothyroxine. Management: Consider separating doses of raloxifene and levothyroxine by several hours. Monitor for reduced effects of levothyroxine and reduced serum concentrations of thyroxine if raloxifene and levothyroxine are used concomitantly. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

RifAMPin: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Ritonavir: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Thyroid product dose requirements may be increased. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Semaglutide: May increase the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sevelamer: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Management: Separate administration of sevelamer and levothyroxine by at least 4 hours to decrease the risk of a significant interaction. Monitor clinical and laboratory response to levothyroxine closely when used together with sevelamer. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sodium Iodide I131: Thyroid Products may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sodium Iodide I131. Management: Discontinue thyroid products before sodium iodide I-131 administration, and avoid concurrent use. Stop triiodothyronine (T3) 2 weeks before, and stop thyroxine (T4) 4 weeks before, sodium iodide I-131 administration. Risk X: Avoid combination

Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate: May decrease the serum concentration of Thyroid Products. Management: Consider administering thyroid products at least 4 hours prior to sodium polystyrene sulfonate. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism with concomitant use. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Somatropin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Soybean: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Thyroid Products. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sucralfate: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide: May decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine. Management: Administer oral/enteral levothyroxine at least 4 hours before administration of sucroferric oxyhydroxide. No interaction is anticipated with parenteral levothyroxine administration. Risk D: Consider therapy modification

Sympathomimetics: Levothyroxine may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sympathomimetics. Specifically, the risk of coronary insufficiency may be increased in patients with coronary artery disease. Levothyroxine may enhance the therapeutic effect of Sympathomimetics. Sympathomimetics may enhance the therapeutic effect of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tolfenamic Acid: May decrease the protein binding of Levothyroxine. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants: Thyroid Products may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Thyroid Products may enhance the stimulatory effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Thyroid Products may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Risk C: Monitor therapy

Food Interactions

Taking levothyroxine with enteral nutrition may cause reduced bioavailability and may lower serum thyroxine levels leading to signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism. Soybean flour (infant formula), soy, grapefruit juice, espresso coffee, cottonseed meal, walnuts, calcium, iron, and dietary fiber may interfere with absorption of levothyroxine from the GI tract. Management: Take in the morning on an empty stomach at least 30 minutes before food. Alternatively, may consistently administer at night 3 to 4 hours after the last meal (AACE/ATA [Garber 2012]; ATA [Jonklaas 2014]). Consider an increase in dose if taken with enteral tube feed. Do not administer within 4 hours of calcium- or iron-containing products.

Reproductive Considerations

Overt hypothyroidism increases the risk of irregular menses and infertility; treatment with levothyroxine is recommended to normalize thyroid function in infertile patients with overt hypothyroidism who desire to become pregnant. Levothyroxine may also be used in infertile patients with subclinical hypothyroidism using assisted reproductive techniques to become pregnant (ATA [Alexander 2017]; ETA [Poppe 2021]).

Pregnancy Considerations

Levothyroxine has not been shown to increase the risk of congenital abnormalities or miscarriage; however, normal levels of maternal thyroid hormones are required for fetal development. Untreated maternal hypothyroidism can be associated with adverse effects in both the mother and fetus, including spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, premature birth, low birth weight, impaired neurocognitive development in the offspring, abruptio placentae, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia (ACOG 2020; ATA [Alexander 2017]).

Thyroid replacement therapy minimizes the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with overt hypothyroidism and treatment is recommended for all patients with overt hypothyroidism during pregnancy (ACOG 2020; ATA [Alexander 2017]). Treatment may also improve some pregnancy outcomes in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (ACOG 2020; Andersen 2020; Bein 2021). Treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism is not recommended for patients with negative thyroid peroxidase antibody status when thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is in the normal pregnancy specific range (or <4 milliunits/L if trimester-specific range unavailable) (ATA [Alexander 2017]).

Levothyroxine is the preferred treatment of maternal hypothyroidism; other agents should not be used during pregnancy. Due to alterations of endogenous maternal thyroid hormones, hypothyroid patients treated with levothyroxine prior to pregnancy require a dose increase as soon as pregnancy is confirmed (ACOG 2020; ATA [Alexander 2017]). Close monitoring of pregnant patients is recommended (ATA [Alexander 2017]).

Patients in the hypothyroid phase of postpartum thyroiditis (who do not have Graves’) may also require levothyroxine treatment. This includes patients who are symptomatic, breastfeeding, planning another pregnancy, or have a TSH greater than the reference range. Dosing recommendations and duration of treatment are not standardized; treatment is individualized according to clinical assessment. Tapering of the dose with a goal of discontinuation, if possible, may begin after 6 to 12 months of treatment; the dose should be gradually decreased with TSH monitoring every 6 to 8 weeks (ATA [Alexander 2017]; Stagnaro-Green 2012).

Monitoring Parameters

T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), heart rate, blood pressure, clinical signs of hypo- and hyperthyroidism; growth, bone development (pediatric patients). Monitor closely for under/overtreatment. Undertreatment may decrease intellectual development and linear growth and lead to poor school performance due to impaired concentration and slowed mentation. Overtreatment may adversely affect brain maturation and accelerate bone age (leading to premature closure of the epiphyses and reduced adult height); craniosynostosis has been reported in infants. Perform routine clinical examinations at regular intervals (to assess mental and physical growth and development). Treated children may experience a period of catch-up growth.

Congenital hypothyroidism: Adequacy of replacement should be determined using both TSH and total or free T4. Monitor TSH and total or free T4 concentrations 1 to 2 weeks after initiating therapy and then every 1 to 2 weeks until normalized; once target concentrations are achieved, monitor thyroid function every 1 to 3 months during the first year of life, every 2 to 4 months between ages 1 to 3 years, and every 3 to 12 months thereafter until growth is completed (AAP 2006; ATA [Jonklaas 2014]; Bauer 2019; ENDO-ERN [van Trotsenburg 2021]; Wassner 2020); more frequent monitoring may be necessary for patients on prolonged enteral feeding (Dickerson 2010; Pirola 2014 ). During the first 3 years of life, total or free T4 should be maintained in the upper 1/2 of the normal range; this should result in normalization of the TSH (AAP 2006; Wassner 2020). In some patients, TSH may not normalize due to a resetting of the pituitary-thyroid feedback as a result of in utero hypothyroidism (AAP 2006). Monitor closely for cardiac overload, arrhythmias, and aspiration from avid suckling (manufacturer's labeling).

Acquired hypothyroidism: TSH is the most reliable guide for evaluating adequacy of thyroid replacement dosage. TSH should be monitored 4 to 6 weeks after initiating therapy and then every 4 to 6 weeks until TSH normalizes; once TSH is stable, monitor every 4 to 6 months; may be able to extend monitoring to yearly in some patients; check TSH 4 to 6 weeks following dosage changes (ATA [Jonklaas 2014]; Bauer 2019; ENDO-ERN [van Trotsenburg 2021]; Wassner 2020); more frequent monitoring may be necessary for patients on prolonged enteral feeding (Dickerson 2010; Pirola 2014 ). TSH may be elevated during the first few months of thyroid replacement despite patients being clinically euthyroid. In cases where T4 remains low and TSH is within normal limits, an evaluation of "free" (unbound) T4 is needed to evaluate further increase in dosage.

Reference Range

Lab Parameters

Age

Normal Range

T4 (thyroxine) serum concentration

1 to 7 days

10.1 to 20.9 mcg/dL

8 to 14 days

9.8 to 16.6 mcg/dL

1 month to 1 year

5.5 to 16 mcg/dL

>1 year

4 to 12 mcg/dL

Free thyroxine index (FTI)

1 to 3 days

9.3 to 26.6

1 to 4 weeks

7.6 to 20.8

1 to 4 months

7.4 to 17.9

4 to 12 months

5.1 to 14.5

1 to 6 years

5.7 to 13.3

>6 years

4.8 to 14

T3 serum concentration

Newborns

100 to 470 ng/dL

1 to 5 years

100 to 260 ng/dL

5 to 10 years

90 to 240 ng/dL

10 years to Adult

70 to 210 ng/dL

T3 uptake

35% to 45%

TSH serum concentration

Cord

3 to 22 micro international units/mL

1 to 3 days

<40 micro international units/mL

3 to 7 days

<25 micro international units/mL

>7 days

0 to 10 micro international units/mL

Mechanism of Action

Levothyroxine (T4) is a synthetic form of thyroxine, an endogenous hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. T4 is converted to its active metabolite, L-triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) then bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and exert metabolic effects through control of DNA transcription and protein synthesis; involved in normal metabolism, growth, and development; promotes gluconeogenesis, increases utilization and mobilization of glycogen stores, and stimulates protein synthesis, increases basal metabolic rate

Pharmacokinetics (Adult Data Unless Noted)

Onset of action: Oral: 3 to 5 days; peak therapeutic effect may require 4 to 6 weeks; IV: Within 6 to 8 hours

Absorption: Oral: Erratic (40% to 80% [per manufacturer]); reported bioavailability in fasting state is 79% to 81% (Dickerson 2010; Fish 1987). Absorption may be decreased by age and specific foods and drugs.

Protein binding: >99% bound to plasma proteins including thyroxine-binding globulin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin, and albumin

Metabolism: Hepatic to triiodothyronine (T3; active); ~80% thyroxine (T4) deiodinated in kidney and periphery; glucuronidation/conjugation also occurs; undergoes enterohepatic recirculation

Time to peak, serum: 2 to 4 hours

Half-life elimination: Euthyroid: 6 to 7 days; Hypothyroid: 9 to 10 days; Hyperthyroid: 3 to 4 days

Excretion: Urine (major route of elimination; decreases with age); feces (~20%)

Brand Names: International
International Brand Names by Country
For country code abbreviations (show table)

  • (AE) United Arab Emirates: Eferox | Eltroxin | Synthroid | Thyronorm;
  • (AR) Argentina: Euthyrox | Fada levotiroxina | Juno | L t | Levotiroxina | Levotiroxina fabra | Levotiroxina Glaxosmithkline | Levotiroxina northia | Synthroid | T4 montpellier;
  • (AT) Austria: Euthyrox | L-thyroxin | L-thyroxin henning | L-Thyroxin-Henning | Levothyroxin stada | Syntroxine | Thyrex;
  • (AU) Australia: Eltroxin | Eutroxsig | Oroxine;
  • (BD) Bangladesh: Euthycin | Leroxin | Leroxy | Oroxin | Synroid | Thormon | Thynor | Thyrin | Thyrolar | Thyronor | Thyrox;
  • (BE) Belgium: Elthyrone | Euthyrox | L-thyroxine | Thyrax;
  • (BF) Burkina Faso: Berlthyrox;
  • (BG) Bulgaria: Accu thyrox | Euthyrox | L-thyroxin;
  • (BR) Brazil: Euthyrox | Levoid | Puran t4 | Synthroid | Tetroid | Tiroidin;
  • (CH) Switzerland: Eltroxin | Eltroxin lf | Euthyrox | Levothyroxin KSA | Tirosint;
  • (CI) Côte d'Ivoire: Levothyrox;
  • (CL) Chile: Esaldox | Eutirox | Levo-tiroxina | Levotiroxina sodica | Synthroid | T4;
  • (CN) China: Euthyrox | Fu jia suo | Jia heng | Letrox | Thyroxine | You xian | Ze ning;
  • (CO) Colombia: Eltroxin | Eutirox | Levotiroxina | Levotiroxina Sodic | Levotiroxina sodica | Synthroid | Tirogal | Tiroxin;
  • (CZ) Czech Republic: Althyxin | Eltroxin | Euthyrox | L thyroxin | L thyroxine | Letrox | Levothyroxine aristo | Levothyroxine Teva | Syntroxine;
  • (DE) Germany: Eferox | Euthyrox | Eutirox | L thyroxin aventis | L thyroxin beta | L thyroxin henning | L thyroxin na abz | L thyroxin na ratiopharm | L-thyrox | L-Thyrox hexal | L-thyroxin | L-thyroxin 1a pharma | L-Thyroxin Aristo | L-thyroxin beta | L-thyroxin henning | L-thyroxin ratiopharm | L-thyroxin sandoz | L-thyroxin winthrop | L-Thyroxin-Na-CT | Levothyroxin | Lixin | Thevier | Tirosint;
  • (DO) Dominican Republic: Bagotirox | Eutirox | Eutiroxin | L t | Levoid | Levotiroxina | Levoxyl | Sintrocid | Synox | Synthroid | Tigofar | Tiroxmen;
  • (EC) Ecuador: Davirox | Eutirox | Levotiroxina | Tiroxin;
  • (EE) Estonia: Eferox | Eltroxin | Euthyrox | L-thyrox | L-thyroxin | L-thyroxin bc | Thyroxin;
  • (EG) Egypt: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | T4 Thyro | Thyroxin | Thyroxine | Tyraxin;
  • (ES) Spain: Dexnon | Eutirox | Levothroid | Levotiroxina aristo | Levotiroxina sanofi | Levotiroxina sodica teva | Thyrax;
  • (ET) Ethiopia: Euthyrox | Thyrofix;
  • (FI) Finland: Medithyrox | Tefor | Thyroxin;
  • (FR) France: Euthyrox | L thyroxin henning | L-thyroxine roche | Levothyrox | Levothyroxine | Levothyroxine Biogaran | Tcaps | Thyrofix | Thyroxine;
  • (GB) United Kingdom: Eltroxin | Evotrox | Levothyrox | Levothyroxin Almus | Levothyroxine | Thyroxine | Thyroxine sodium | Thyroxine sodium kent pharm;
  • (GR) Greece: Accu thyrox | Eltroxin | Euthyrox | L thyroxin | Levothyroxine | Medithyrox | T4 | Thyro 4 | Thyrohormone | Tirosint;
  • (HK) Hong Kong: Eltroxin | Levothyroxine | Thyroxinal | Thyroxine;
  • (HR) Croatia: Euthyrox | Letrox | Tyraq;
  • (HU) Hungary: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | L thyroxin | L-thyroxin | Letrox | Syntroxine | Thyrax;
  • (ID) Indonesia: Euthyrox | Thyrax duo | Thyroxine;
  • (IE) Ireland: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | Levothyroxine;
  • (IL) Israel: Eltroxin;
  • (IN) India: Eltibio | Eltroxin | Euthyroid | Euthyrox | Lethyrox | Roxin | Sun thyroid | Synox | Thiarx | Thyobuild | Thyrobest | Thyrobuild | Thyrocare | Thyroday | Thyrofit | Thyronil | Thyronorm | Thyropil | Thyrorich | Thyrorite | Thyrosurz | Thyrotas | Thyroup | Thyroweek | Thyrox | Uthyrox;
  • (IS) Iceland: Thyroxin-Natrium;
  • (IT) Italy: Eutirox | Levotiroxina aristo | Levotiroxina teva | Syntroxine | Tiche | Tifactor | Tirosint;
  • (JO) Jordan: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | Thyroxin;
  • (JP) Japan: Thyradin s;
  • (KE) Kenya: Eltroxin;
  • (KR) Korea, Republic of: Levosin | Synthyroid | Synthyroxine | Tetronine | Thyroxine;
  • (KW) Kuwait: Eferox | Eltroxin | Euthyrox | Letrox | Synthroid;
  • (LB) Lebanon: Berlthyrox | Eltroxin | Euthyrox | L thyroxine | Letrox;
  • (LT) Lithuania: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | L thyroxin | L thyroxin berlin Chemie | L thyroxin henning | L-thyrox | L-thyroxin | L-thyroxin berlin-chemie;
  • (LU) Luxembourg: Elthyrone | Euthyrox | L-thyroxine | Thyrax;
  • (LV) Latvia: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | L thyroxin na ratiopharm | L-thyrox | L-thyroxin | L-thyroxin henning;
  • (MA) Morocco: L-thyroxine roche | Levothyrox;
  • (MX) Mexico: Abutiroi | Amet | Cynocuatro | Eutirox | Gentexin | Karet | Levhexal | Levotiroxin | Levotiroxina | Levotiroxina gi me | Levotiroxina iqfa | Levotiroxina kendrick | Levotiroxina sodica | Noralcodex | Sintrocid | Synthroid | Thevier | Tiroidine;
  • (MY) Malaysia: Oroxine | Thyrosit | Thyroxine sodium;
  • (NG) Nigeria: Levothyroxine | Vievothroxine;
  • (NL) Netherlands: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | Levothyroxine Christiaens | Levothyroxinenatrium aristo | Levothyroxinenatrium Teva | Thyrax | Thyrofix | Tirosint;
  • (NO) Norway: Eltroxin | L thyrox | L thyroxin henning | L thyroxin na ratiopharm | L-Thyrox hexal | L-thyroxin campus | L-thyroxin henning | L-thyroxin unimedic | Levaxin | Levothroid | Thyroxin-Natrium | Tirosint;
  • (NZ) New Zealand: Eltroxin | Levothyroxine | Synthroid | Tirosint;
  • (PE) Peru: Boncheck | Dobesium | Eutilevo | Eutirox | Eutroid-l | Levotiroxina | Levotiroxina sodica | Levotiroy | T4 bago | Thyromac | Tyroxcaf;
  • (PH) Philippines: Eltroxin | Eurolev | Euthyrox | Levothyroxine Pacific | Thydin | Thyrax | Thyrohex | Zaliana;
  • (PK) Pakistan: Rox | Thyro | Thyronorm | Thyrox | Thyroxin | Thyroxine | Thyroxinil;
  • (PL) Poland: Eferox | Eltroxin | Euthyrox | Euthyrox n | L thyroxin | L-thyroxin | Letrox | Levoroxin | Vobenol;
  • (PR) Puerto Rico: Esi lederle levo-t | Levotabs | Levothroid | Levothyroxine | Levoxyl | Synthroid | Thyquidity | Unithroid;
  • (PT) Portugal: Eutirox | Letequatro | Letter | Levotiroxina sodica | Thyrax;
  • (PY) Paraguay: Levotiroxina | Levotiroxina sodica lch | T4 | T4 bago | Tirenorm;
  • (RO) Romania: Accu thyrox | Euthyrox | Levotiroxina teva | Thyro 4;
  • (RU) Russian Federation: Bagothyrox | Euthyrox | L thyroxin | L thyroxin akri | L-thyrok | L-thyroxin | L-thyroxin berlin-chemie | L-thyroxin hexal | L-thyroxine | L-thyroxine akri | L-Thyroxine farmak | Levothyroxine | Thyro 4;
  • (SA) Saudi Arabia: Eltroxin | Euthyrox;
  • (SE) Sweden: Euthyrox | Levaxin | Levotyroxin nycomed;
  • (SG) Singapore: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | Oroxine | Thyrosit;
  • (SI) Slovenia: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | L thyroxin | Levaxin | Thyroxin NA | Vobenol;
  • (SK) Slovakia: Euthyrox | L thyroxin | L thyroxine | L-thyroxin | Tirosint;
  • (SV) El Salvador: Levotrix;
  • (TH) Thailand: El Thyro | Eltroxin | Euthyrox | Patroxin | Pondtroxin | T 4 k p | Thyrosit | Thyroxine;
  • (TN) Tunisia: Berlthyrox | L-thyroxine roche | Levothyrox | Thyro 4;
  • (TR) Turkey: Levotiron | Tefor;
  • (TW) Taiwan: Eltroxin;
  • (UA) Ukraine: Bagothyrox | Euthyrox | L thyroxin | L-thyrox euro | Thyro 4;
  • (UG) Uganda: Euthyrox;
  • (UY) Uruguay: Levotiroxina | Narval | Tecuatro | Tirox;
  • (VE) Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of: Euthyrox | Levotiroxina | Levotiroxina sodica | Noralcodex | Puran t4 | Testam | Thyrax | Thyrin | Thyrona | Tigofar | Tiroxin;
  • (ZA) South Africa: Eltroxin | Euthyrox | Synthroid;
  • (ZM) Zambia: Eltroxin;
  • (ZW) Zimbabwe: Eltroxin
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